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Table 2 Correlations between inadequate PNC use and socioeconomic, educational, and healthcare indicators in univariate logistic regression analysis

From: Regional socio-environmental characteristics associated with inadequate prenatal care during pregnancy: an ecological study of 47 prefectures in Japan

  N PNC initiation at 28 weeks GA or later Never attending PNC before childbirth
crude OR 95% CI a_OR 95% CI Crude OR 95% CI a_OR 95% CI
Socioeconomic indicators
 Total population (×10−4)
  under 100 9 Reference       Reference      
  100–199 21 4.00 0.41 38.65     1.33 0.12 14.87    
  200–499 8 4.80 0.38 59.89     1.14 0.06 21.87    
  500 or more 9 16.00* 1.32 194.62     10.00 0.85 117.02    
 Population density (persons/m3)
  under 300 25 Reference    Reference    Reference    Reference   
  300–999 15 1.29 0.32 5.13 0.55 0.06 4.96 1.13 0.17 7.67 0.15 0.01 2.85
  1000 or over 7 6.43 1.00 41.20 1.17 0.07 18.19 18.33* 2.39 140.39 2.05 0.11 38.27
 Non-Japanese nationality population (%)
  less than mean (≤0.9941) 27 Reference    Reference    Reference    Reference   
  more than mean (> 0.9941) 20 4.28* 1.21 15.15 14.71 0.89 242.96 4.31 0.95 19.53 1.69 0.12 24.64
 Single-parent families (%)
  less than the mean (≤9.284436) 26 Reference    Reference    Reference    Reference   
  more than the mean (> 9.284436) 21 0.80 0.24 2.66 2.09 0.19 23.37 0.45 0.10 2.02 0.31 0.03 3.64
 Divorce rate (per thousand)
  less than the mean (≤1.668244) 21 Reference    Reference    Reference    Reference   
  more than the mean (> 1.668244) 26 7.00* 1.65 29.69 7.22* 1.21 43.11 10.59* 1.22 92.25 6.15 0.45 84.26
 Annual prefectural income per capita (million yen)
  under 2.5 10 Reference    Reference    Reference    Reference   
  2.5 or over and under 3.0 24 0.96 0.19 4.82 0.38 0.04 3.47 1.80 0.18 18.47 0.25 0.01 6.43
  3.0 and over 13 2.72 0.48 15.47 0.28 0.01 6.16 5.63 0.54 58.91 0.37 0.01 18.01
 Gini coefficient
  less than the mean (≤0.3064681) 26 Reference       Reference      
  more than the mean (> 0.3064681) 21 1.69 0.51 5.60     1.31 0.32 5.32    
Educational indicators
 Percentage of enrolment into advanced educational institutions among high school graduates (%)
  less than the mean (≤50.94128) 23 Reference       Reference      
  more than the mean (> 50.94128) 24 1.13 0.34 3.70     1.58 0.38 6.55    
 Percentage of enrolment into a high school among middle school graduates (%)
  less than the mean (≤97.01957) 21 Reference    Reference    Reference    Reference   
  more than the mean (> 97.01957) 26 0.41 0.12 1.37 1.20 0.17 8.75 0.14* 0.02 0.73 0.15 0.01 1.84
 Rate of long-term absence due to refusal to school (per 1000 students)
  less than the mean (≤28.36566) 24 Reference       Reference      
  more than the mean (> 28.36566) 23 0.89 0.27 2.93     1.76 0.43 7.31    
Healthcare workforce indicators
 No. of OBGYNs (per 10,000 women aged 15–49 years)
  less than the mean (≤4.583474) 24 Reference       Reference      
  more than the mean (> 4.583474) 23 0.61 0.18 2.04     0.63 0.15 2.61    
  1. *p < 0.05
  2. Two outcome variables were divided by the mean, and the explanatory variables were divided into 2–4 categories
  3. GA Gestational Age
  4. PNC Prenatal Care
  5. OR Odds Ratio
  6. a-OR adjusted Odds Ratio
  7. CI Confidential Interval
  8. OBGYNs Obstetricians and Gynaecologists