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Table 1 The rates of inadequate PNC use and descriptions of socioeconomic indicators in 47 prefectures

From: Regional socio-environmental characteristics associated with inadequate prenatal care during pregnancy: an ecological study of 47 prefectures in Japan

Variable Mean SD Min Max
Rates of inadequate PNC use
 Pregnant women who initiated PNC at 28 weeks GA or later (per 1000 pregnant women)   
  5.44 1.83 3.00 11.24
 Pregnant women who never attended PNC visits before childbirth (per 1000 pregnant women)   
  1.42 1.38 0.23 8.06
Socioeconomic indicators
 Population (×10−4) 270.4 272.9 57.3 1351.5
 Population density (persons/m3) 655.3 1194.4 68.6 6168.7
 Non-Japanese nationality population (%) 0.99 0.58 0.26 2.80
 Single-parent families (%) 9.28 0.89 7.53 12.66
 Divorce rate (per 1000 population) 1.66 0.20 1.31 2.52
 Annual prefectural income per capita (million yen)   
  2.85 0.49 2.19 5.44
 Gini coefficient 0.31 0.01 0.28 0.34
Educational indicators
 Percentage of enrolment into advanced educational institutions among high school graduates (%)   
  50.94 6.56 39.18 66.08
 Percentage of enrolment into high school among middle school graduates (%)   
  97.02 1.17 93.2 98.88
 Rate of long-term absence due to refusal to attend school (per 1000 students)   
  28.37 3.50 20.76 37.11
Healthcare workforce indicators
 Number of OBGYNs (per 10,000 women aged 15–49)   
  4.58 0.69 2.90 6.05
  1. SD Standard Deviation
  2. GA Gestational Age
  3. PNC Prenatal Care
  4. OBGYNs Obstetricians and Gynaecologists