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Table 4 Associations between maternal risk factors and gestational diabetes mellitus in univariate analysis and multivariate analysis, applying the 2013WHO criteria

From: Identifying women with gestational diabetes based on maternal characteristics: an analysis of four Norwegian prospective studies

Variables Univariate analysis Model 1ª: r2 = 0.164 Model 2єr2 = 0.163
Odds ratio 95% CI P-value aOR 95% CI P-value aOR 95% CI P-value
Age (years)    < 0.001    < 0.001    < 0.001
  ≤ 25 1    1    1   
 25–29.9 0.74 0.53–1.01 0.062 0.91 0.63–1.32 0.622 0.87 0.60–1.25 0.445
 30–34.9 0.85 0.62–1.17 0.321 1.24 0.84–1.83 0.267 1.18 0.82–1.70 0.381
  ≥ 35 1.50 1.07–2.13 0.020 2.17 1.42–3.33 < 0.001 2.07 1.38–3.09 < 0.001
Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2)    < 0.001    < 0.001    < 0.001
  ≤ 25 1    1    1   
 25–26.9 1.84 1.38–2.46 < 0.001 1.69 1.24–2.30 0.001 1.70 1.25–2.32 < 0.001
 27–29.9 3.23 2.40–4.35 < 0.001 2.96 2.15–4.09 < 0.001 3.02 2.18–4.16 0.001
  ≥ 30 4.84 3.60–6.49 < 0.001 3.90 2.80–5.43 < 0.001 4.06 2.93–5.61 < 0.001
non-European ethnicity 3.79 3.00–4.78 < 0.001 1.91 1.28–2.86 0.002 2.17 1.51–3.10 < 0.001
Parous 1.49 1.23–1.80 < 0.001 1.02 0.79–1.31 0.875    
Education       0.340    
 Higher education 1    1      
 high school education 1.89 1.52–2.36 < 0.001 1.43 0.88–2.33 0.148    
 primary or less 4.17 2.94–5.92 < 0.001 1.11 0.84–1.47 0.474    
Height 0.96 0.94–0.97 < 0.001 0.99 0.98–1.00 0.580    
Current smoker 0.65 0.38–1.12 0.119 1.13 0.98–1.01 0.674    
Cohort    < 0.001       
 Stork Rikshospitalet 1         
 FFF 0.94 0.69–1.26 0.668       
 STORK G 2.64 2.09–3.34 < 0.001       
 TRIP 0.41 0.29–0.59 < 0.001       
Diabetes in family * 1.85 1.44–2.38 < 0.001       
  1. Binary logistic regression was performed, 2013WHO-criteria. aAdjusted for age, pre-pregnancy BMI, ethnicity, parity, education, height, smoking and cohort (not shown).єAdjusted for age, pre-pregnancy BMI, ethnicity and cohort (not shown)
  2. Abbrevations: aOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidens interval, BMI body mass index
  3. * Not measured in Fit for Delivery