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Table 2 Characteristics of the participating pregnancy and birth cohorts

From: Identifying women with gestational diabetes based on maternal characteristics: an analysis of four Norwegian prospective studies

Characteristics Stork Grorudddalen Stork Rikshospitalet Fit for Delivery TRIP Total
n = 752 n = 983 n = 545 n = 701 n = 2981
Study period 2008–2010 2002–2008 2009–2013 2007–2009  
Type of study cohort cohort RCT RCT  
Gest. age at inclusion (weeks) 15.1 ± 3.4 15.8 ± 1.3 15.1 ± 2.6 20.2 ± 1.6 16.5 ± 3.1
Gest. age at OGTT (weeks) 28.3 ± 1.3 31.2 ± 1.0 29.6 ± 0.8 34.0 ± 2.0 30.8 ± 2.5
European ethnicity 363 (48.3) 983 (100) 541 (99.3) 701 (100) 2588 (86.8)
Current smoker 31 (5.0) 23 (2.3) 20 (3.7) 6 (0.9) 80 (2.8)
Education
primary or less 124 (16.5) 12 (1.2) 10 (1.8) 3 (0.4) 149 (5.0)
High school education 297 (39.5) 128 (13.0) 158 (29.0) 62 (8.8) 645 (21.6)
Higher education 331 (44.0) 843 (85.8) 377 (69.2) 636 (90.7) 2187 (73.4)
Primipara 345 (45.9) 524 (53.3) 545 (100) 405 (57.8) 1819 (61.0)
Diabetes in family 191 (26.1) 98 (10.5) NM 61 (9.1) 350 (11.7)
Age (years)
 Total 29.9 ± 4.8 31.3 ± 3.8 28.0 ± 4.3 30.6 ± 4.2 30.2 ± 4.4
 Primipara 28.1 ± 4.6 30.0 ± 3.7 28.0 ± 4.3 29.2 ± 3.7 28.9 ± 4.1
 Parous 31.4 ± 4.5 32.7 ± 3.6 a 32.4 ± 4.1 32.2 ± 4.0
Prepregnant BMI (kg/m2) 24.6 ± 4.8 23.4 ± 3.7 23.6 ± 3.8 23.1 ± 3.1 23.7 ± 3.9
BMI at inclusion (kg/m2) 25.3 ± 4.8 24.5 ± 3.4 24.5 ± 3.9 24.7 ± 3.1 24.8 ± 4.0
Fasting glucose at OGTT (mmol/L) 4.8 ± 0.6 4.6 ± 0.4 4.6 ± 0.4 4.3 ± 0.4 4.6 ± 0.5
2-h glucose at OGTT (mmol/L) 6.2 ± 1.4 6.2 ± 1.4 6.1 ± 1.3 5.7 ± 1.2 6.1 ± 1.3
GDM, 1999WHO-criteria 97 (12.9) 124 (12.6) 57 (10.5) 42 (6.0) 320 (10.7)
GDM, 2013WHO-criteria 236 (31.4) 145 (14.8) 76 (13.9) 47 (6.7) 504 (16.9)
GDM, 2017Norway-criteria 156 (20.7) 87 (8.9) 38 (7.0) 27 (3.9) 308 (10.3)
  1. Data presented as mean ± SD or n (%). Values are imputed for pre-pregnancy weight, parity and education
  2. a Only primipara included in the study
  3. OGTT oral glucose tolerance test, BMI body mass index, GDM gestational diabetes mellitus, WHO World Health Organization, NM not measured