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Table 3 Results of multilevel logistic regression analysis assessing the odds of utilization of maternal and child healthcare services in hilly Himalayan regions of India, NFHS-4 (20015–16)

From: Contrast in utilization of maternal and child health services between Himalayan region and rest of India: Evidence from National Family Health Survey (2015–16)

  Skilled birth attendance Post-natal care Ante-natal care Full Immunization No Immunization At least two tetanus injection before birth Given/took iron folic tablet/syrup for at least 100 days during pregnancy Child received benefits from Anganwadi/ICDS, last 12 months During Pregnancy received benefits from Anganwadi/ICDS Received financial assistance for delivery cost Financial assistance got from JSY for delivery cost
  Adjusted Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)
Total
 Plain 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Hilly 0.42 (0.39–0.45)a 0.56 (0.52–0.60)a 1.08 (1.00–1.17)c 0.82 (0.77–0.86)a 1.62 (1.46–1.78)a 0.46 (0.42–0.49)a 1.74 (1.61–1.88)a 0.96 (0.89–0.1.04)ns 0.74 (0.68–0.82)a 0.54 (0.50–0.58)a 0.43 (0.41–0.47)a
Urban
 Plain 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Hilly 0.84 (0.71–0.99)b 0.81 (0.71–0.92)b 1.21 (1.05–1.41)b 0.87 (0.79–0.96)b 1.86 (1.56–2.22)a 0.75 (0.65–0.86)a 1.60 (1.40–1.83)a 1.06 (1.0.90–1.24)ns 0.89 (0.75–1.06)ns 1.05 (0.92–1.21)ns 0.86 (0.75–0.99)c
Rural
 Plain 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Hilly 0.34 (0.31–0.37)a 0.48 (0.45–0.52)a 1.06 (0.96–1.17)ns 0.79 (0.74–0.85)a 1.52 (1.34–1.70)a 0.39 (0.36–0.43)a 1.81 (1.65–1.99)a 0.92 (0.84–0.1.01)ns 0.70 (0.63–0.77)a 0.41 (0.38–0.44)a 0.33 (0.31–0.37)a
  1. a: p-value < 0.001; b: p-value < 0.05; c: p-value < 0.1; ns not significant