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Table 2 Predictors of complete continuum of maternity care in Zambia

From: Continuum of maternity care in Zambia: a national representative survey

Characteristics Complete continued care n=2787 P-value Crude model
COR (95%CI)
P-value Primary Model
AOR (95% CI)
Secondary Model
AOR (95% CI)
Parity   0.223   0.408   
 Three or more 1445 (51.9)   1    
 Two 551(19.7)   1.04 (0.89-1.23)    
 One 791 (28.4)   1.10 (0.96-1.27)    
Residence   0.003   0.082   
 Rural 1656 (59.4)   1   1 1
 Urban 1130 (40.6)   1.16 (0.98-1.37)   0.99(0.79-1.26) 1.05 (0.79-1.40)
Provinces   <0.001   <0.001   
 Western 109 (3.9)   1   1 1
 Copperbelt 422 (15.1)   2.61 (1.81-3.75)   2.30 (1.58-3.35) 3.11 (1.85-5.23)
 Eastern 400 (14.4)   2.32 (1.62-3.34)   2.22 (1.55-3.19) 2.91 (1.79-4.74)
 Luapula 267 (9.6)   2.41 (1.59-3.67)   2.22 (1.49-3.29) 2.90 (1.74-4.82)
 Lusaka 488 (17.5)   2.25 (1.56-3.26)   1.95 (1.33-2.87) 2.81 (1.67-4.75)
 Muchinga 209 (7.5)   3.16 (2.09-4.76)   3.19 (2.17-4.69) 4.08 (2.46-6.75)
 Northern 272 (9.8)   2.69 (1.61-4.49)   2.66 (1.60-4.41) 3.63 (1.92-6.85)
 North Western 164 (5.9)   2.31 (1.62-3.31)   2.40 (1.69-3.40) 3.88 (2.29-6.57)
 Southern 264 (9.5)   1.31 (0.87-1.97)   1.25 (0.84-1.87) 1.48 (0.91-2.43)
 Central 191 (6.9)   1.44 (0.98-2.12)   1.32 (0.90-1.95) 1.86 (1.15-3.03)
Working status   0.041   0.128   
 Not working 1416 (50.8)   1   1 1
 Working 1370 (49.2)   1.10 (0.97-1.26)   1.05 (0.93-1.19) 0.89 (0.74-1.06)
Marital status   0.006   0.022   
 Not Married 643 (23.1)   1   1 -
 Married 2143 (76.9)   1.17 (1.02-1.33)   1.10 (0.96-1.26) -
Education Level   <0.001   <0.001   
 No Education 198 (7.1)   1    1
 Primary Education 1316 (47.2)   1.43 (1.14-1.79)    1.29 (1.01-1.64)
 Secondary Education 1091 (39.1)   1.65 (1.33-2.05)    1.21 (0.91-1.61)
 Tertiary 182 (6.5)   3.34 (2.32-4.82)    1.93 (1.09-3.42)
Wealth Index   <0.001   0.052   
 Poorest 611 (21.9)   1   1 1
 Poorer 550 (19.7)   0.98 (0.83-1.16)   0.93 (0.78-1.11) 0.88 (0.71-1.10)
 Middle 515 (18.5)   1.03 (0.84-1.25)   0.97 (0.79-1.18) 0.91 (0.70-1.18)
 Richer 547 (19.6)   1.03 (0.81-1.31)   0.88 (0.65-1.19) 0.94 (0.62-1.43)
 Richest 563 (20.2)   1.40 (1.09-1.81)   0.92 (0.66-1.30) 0.79 (0.48-1.29)
Age in years   0.721   0.777   
 35-49 644 (23.1)   1    
 25-34 1165 (41.8)   1.03 (0.88-1.20)    
 15-24 978 (35.1)   0.98 (0.85-1.14)    
ANC timing   <0.001   <0.001   
 First trimester 1353 (48.6)   1    1
 Second or third trimester 1429 (51.4)   0.45 (0.40-0.51)    0.46 (0.39-0.53)
Newspaper Exposure   <0.001   0.001   
 No 2237 (80.3)   1   1 1
 Yes 550 (19.7)   1.43 (1.15-1.77)   1.09 (0.88-1.35) 1.10 (0.86-1.41)
Exposure to Radio   <0.001   <0.001   
 No 1347 (48.3)   1   1 1
 Yes 1440 (51.7)   1.57 (1.38-1.79)   1.43 (1.23-1.68) 1.58 (1.27-1.96)
Exposure to TV   <0.001   0.002   
 No 1705 (61.2)   1   1 1
 Yes 1082 (38.8)   1.29 (1.10-1.51)   0.96 (0.77-1.18) 0.92 (0.73-1.16)
Preceding Birth Interval   0.001   0.006   
 Less than 24 months 263 (12.9)   1    1
 24 months and above 1778 (87.1)   1.31 (1.08-1.59)    1.23 (0.99-1.52)
Partner’s education   <0.001   <0.001   
 No education 93 (4.5)   1    1
 Primary 719 (34.5)   1.37 (0.95-1.96)    1.31 (0.88-1.94)
 Secondary 1012 (48.6)   1.64 (1.17-2.29)    1.40 (0.96-2.05)
 Tertiary 258 (12.4)   3.42 (2.32-5.03)    2.58 (1.54-4.32)
Age at first sex   <0.001   0.001   
 18 years and above 794 (28.5)   1   1 1
 Less than 18 years 1993 (71.5)   0.79 (0.69-0.91)   1.01 (0.85-1.19) 1.15 (0.93-1.43)
Healthcare seeking decision   <0.001   0.006   
 Not involved 385 (18.0)   1    1
 Involved 1758 (82.0)   1.30 (1.08-1.58)    1.24 (0.99-1.55)
Age at first birth   <0.001   0.001   
 20 years and above 978 (35.1)   1   1 1
 Less than 20 years 1808 (64.9)   0.79 (0.69-0.90)   0.92 (0.78-1.07) 0.99 (0.80-1.23)
  1. bold= Significant at p-value <0.05, Secondary model adjusted for residence, provinces, exposure to mass media, working and marital status, level of education, wealth index, timing of ANC initiation, preceding birth interval, age at first sexual intercourse and first birth and healthcare seeking decision making