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Table 3 Random effect estimates of individual-, household- and community-level factors associated with SSC in Nigeria

From: Coverage and factors associated with mother and newborn skin-to-skin contact in Nigeria: a multilevel analysis

Random-effect Model I Model II Model III Model IV Model V
Community-level
Variance (SE) 2.68 (0.21)* 2.89 (0.22)* 2.59 (0.17)* 2.36 (0.15)* 2.50 (0.18)*
VPC 28.0% 27.9% 27.9% 26.5% 26.2%
PCV Reference -7.8% 3.4% 11.9 6.7%
MOR 12.91 15.76 11.79 9.48 10.88
ICC 45.4% 47.7% 44.9% 40.3% 42.5%
Household-level
Variance (SE) 2.32 (0.27)* 2.42 (0.25)* 2.22 (0.22)* 2.22 (0.21)* 2.28 (0.23)*
VPC 32.9% 33.0% 32.8% 33.6% 33.7%
PCV Reference -4.3% 4.3% 4.3% 1.7%
MOR 9.13 10.11 8.32 8.34 8.79
ICC 33.9% 33.5% 33.1% 35.8% 35.2%
Model fit statistics
AIC 13465.7 12157.4 13367.5 13322.9 12008.2
BIC 13489.6 12372.6 13439.4 13418.8 12343.0
  1. Model I – empty null model, baseline model without any explanatory variables (unconditional model)
  2. Model II – adjusted for only individual-level factors
  3. Model III – adjusted for only household-level factors
  4. Model IV – adjusted for only community-level factors
  5. Model V – adjusted for individual-, household-, and community-level factors (full model)
  6. SE Standard Error, VPC Variance Partition Coefficient, PCV Proportional Change in Variance, MOR Median Odds Ratio, ICC Intra-class correlation, AIC Akaike's Information Criterion, BIC Bayesian Information Criterion, *Significant at p<0.05