Skip to main content

Table 1 Study characteristics and VMB diversity findings of included articles that characterized the VMB composition in pregnant women in the sub-Saharan African region

From: Composition of the vaginal microbiota during pregnancy in women living in sub-Saharan Africa: a PRISMA-compliant review

Author. year
Country
Study design Study population Number of pregnant participants Mean or range of Maternal age (years) Gestational age at sampling (weeks) Method /technique used to detect microbiota or vaginal microbiota dysbiosis
Frank et al. 2012 [30]
Burkina Faso
Case-control (nested in within a prospective cohort MTCT prevention clinical trial of azidothymidine and the microbicide benzalkonium chloride.) HIV-1 infected pregnant women at 36–38 GA weeks (and their live-born children) 64 women (10 whose babies had a MTCT of HIV and 54 with uninfected babies) 21–27 36–38 16S rRNA pyrosequencing
Borgdorff et al. 2015 [36]
Rwanda
Prospective cohort Sex-workers 61 24 (19–44) NR DNA hybridization microarray of 16S rRNA gene probes
Gautam et al. 2015 [8]
Kenya
Multi-country prospective observational cohort study Pregnant women < 14 GA weeks 15 NR NR 16S rDNA phylogenetic microarray
Jespers et al. 2015 [9]
Kenya.
Cross-sectional Pregnant women < 14 weeks gestation 30 24–26 NR Quantitative PCR
Jespers et al. 2015 [9]
South Africa.
30 24–26 NR Quantitative PCR
Bisanz et al. 2015 [32]
Tanzania
Open-label study Healthy pregnant women between 18 and 40 years and a GA 12–24 weeks −23 women that that received moringa-supplemented probiotic yogurt.
− 24 women without intervention.
24 20 Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the V4 rRNA gene region of the 16S rRNA gene
Brabin et al. 2017 [33]
Burkina Faso
double blind, non-inferiority, RCT.
-intervention: folic acid + iron supplements
-Control: folic acid supplement
Healthy nulliparous women between 15 and 24 years - 144 women in folic acid+ iron-arm group CST was determined
- 136 women in folic acid group CST was determined
17.1 (both groups) NR (13–15) (both groups) Schloss wet-lab MiSeq sequencing of the V4 rRNA gene region of the 16S rRNA gene
McMillan et al. 2018 [37]
Rwanda
RCT, blinded and placebo controlled
- intervention: probiotic capsules
- control: placebo
Healthy pregnant women between 18 and 55 years and a GA < 36 weeks −18 women in the placebo arm visit at visit one.
- 13 women remained in the placebo arm one month after visit 1.
27.6 22 (8–32) Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the V6 rRNA gene region of the 16S rRNA gene
Price et al. 2019 [35]
Zambia
Cross-sectional Pregnant women < 24 GA weeks 256 27 (22–32) 18 (17–19) Whole genome shotgun sequencing
Masha et al. 2019 [18]
Burkina Faso
nested case-control study
- Cases: TV or CT cases
- Controls: women that were negative for TV, CT, and bacterial vaginosis
Pregnant women, 18–45 years, ≥14 weeks, and resident of the study area 51
− 18 TV cases
− 14 CT cases
− 21 control
NR.
In category groups:
TV cases:
- 18-24: 38.9%
- ≥ 25: 6.1%
CT cases:
- 18-24: 64.3%
- ≥ 25: 35.74%
Control:
- 18-24: 28.6%
- ≥ 25: 71.4%
NR.
In category groups:
TV cases:
- 14-27: 55.6%
- ≥ 28: 44.4%
CT cases:
- 14-27: 53.9%
- ≥ 28: 46.2%
Control:
- 14-27: 66.7%
- ≥ 28: 33.3%
Ion 16S MetagenomicsTM Kit primer set for V2–4-8 amplification of the 16S rRNA gene
Gudza-Mugabe et al. 2019 [31]
Zimbabwe
Cross-sectional study design Pregnant women > 18 years and a GA of 15–35 weeks 356 (42 HIV-infected and 314 HIV-uninfected women) 29 (24–34) 29 (25–33) Sequencing of the V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene
  1. 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene. ANC antenatal care, ART Antiretroviral therapy, BV bacterial vaginosis, CI confidance interval, CT C. trachomatis, GA gestational age, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, MTCT mother-to-child transmission, NR not reported, OR odds ratio, PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction, RCT randomized control trail, TV Trichomonas vaginalis, VMB vaginal microbiota, NR not reported