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Table 5 Effect of GWG among women of different pre-pregnancy BMI and fetal sex on GDM development defined by IADPSG criteria

From: Comparative epidemiology of gestational diabetes in ethnic Chinese from Shanghai birth cohort and growing up in Singapore towards healthy outcomes cohort

GDM Shanghai Birth cohort
Unadjusted
GUSTO Birth Cohort
Unadjusted
Shanghai Birth cohort
Adjusted
GUSTO Birth Cohort
Adjusted
P-value*
OR (95 % CI) P-value OR (95 % CI) P-value OR (95 % CI) P-value OR (95 % CI) P-value
Maternal age 1.1(1.0-1.2) 0.002 1.08(1.03–1.14) 0.004 1.1(1.0-1.2) 0.030 1.06(0.99–1.12) 0.099 1.000
GWG at early pregnancy (z score) 1.0(0.8–1.3) 0.690 1.1(0.9–1.5) 0.277 1.1(0.7–1.7) 0.722 1.1(0.7–1.8) 0.611 1.000
Pre-pregnancy BMI          
< 18.5 0.82(0.40–1.67) 0.579 0.58(0.22–1.53) 0.274 1.0(0.4–2.3) 0.972 0.69(0.25–1.89) 0.471 0.650
≥ 18.5 to < 23 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0   
≥ 23 to < 27.5 2.5(1.5-4.0) < 0.001 1.5(0.8–2.8) 0.190 2.5(1.4–4.4) 0.002 1.3(0.7–2.6) 0.415 0.007
≥ 27.5 3.7(1.7-8.0) 0.001 4.3(2.0-9.1) < 0.001 3.6(1.3–9.6) 0.011 3.8(1.7–8.8) 0.001 0.762
Alcohol consumption 5.8(0.4–93.9) 0.214 0.85(0.19–3.72) 0.824 11.8(0.7-196.4) 0.086 1.1(0.2–4.9) 0.939 < 0.001
Family history of diabetes 2.3(1.3–4.3) 0.008 1.3(0.7–2.2) 0.388 1.8(0.9–3.6) 0.081 0.67(0.34–1.32) 0.247 0.022
Family history of hypertension 1.5(1.0-2.3) 0.077 1.1(0.7–1.8) 0.649 1.4(0.8–2.3) 0.250 0.91(0.52–1.60) 0.746 0.213
Current or ever smoker 0.94(0.27–3.25) 0.928 0.70(0.27–1.80) 0.456 1.9(0.5–7.9) 0.373 0.87(0.31–2.44) 0.793 0.241
Parous 1.2(0.7–2.3) 0.519 1.3(0.8–2.2) 0.225 0.68(0.29–1.58) 0.365 0.93(0.53–1.65) 0.810 0.631
History of GDM in previous pregnancy 12.2(1.1-135.3) 0.042 8.3(3.3–20.7) < 0.001 2.4(0.1–44.6) 0.552 8.3(2.8–24.4) < 0.001 < 0.001
Male fetus 0.97(0.63–1.49) 0.873 1.0(0.6–1.6) 0.988 0.94(0.56–1.58) 0.822 0.82(0.48–1.42) 0.480 0.754
  1. Adjusted for maternal age, GWG at early pregnancy, pre-pregnancy BMI group, alcohol consumption, family history of diabetes, family history of hypertension, smoking status, parity, history of GDM in previous pregnancy, fetal sex
  2. In the adjusted model, 74.4 % of SBC subjects (546 out of 734) were used while 82.9 % of GUSTO subjects (561 out of 677) were used
  3. *P value refers to the difference between cohorts in the adjusted model
  4. Interaction between GWG and pre pregnancy BMI group and fetal sex was included in the model but not significant
  5. Overall interaction for GWG and pre pregnancy BMI group: p = 0.379 for SBC, p = 0.729 for GUSTO
  6. Interaction for GWG and fetal sex: p = 0.798 for SBC, p = 0.582 for GUSTO
  7. Supplementary Information
  8. Additional file 1. Supplementary tables