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Table 3 Effect of GWG among women of different pre-pregnancy BMI and fetal sex on GDM development defined by 1999 WHO criteria

From: Comparative epidemiology of gestational diabetes in ethnic Chinese from Shanghai birth cohort and growing up in Singapore towards healthy outcomes cohort

GDM Shanghai Birth cohort
Unadjusted
GUSTO Birth Cohort
Unadjusted
Shanghai Birth cohort
Adjusted
GUSTO Birth Cohort
Adjusted
P-value*
OR (95 % CI) P-value OR (95 % CI) P-value OR (95 % CI) P-value OR (95 % CI) P-value
Maternal age 1.08(1.03–1.14) 0.003 1.09(1.04–1.14) < 0.001 1.1(1.0-1.2) 0.014 1.08(1.03–1.13) 0.003 1.000
GWG at early pregnancy (z score) 0.86(0.70–1.05) 0.133 1.2(1.0-1.5) 0.085 0.69(0.44–1.08) 0.106 1.2(0.8–1.7) 0.444 0.088
Pre-pregnancy BMI          
< 18.5 0.72(0.37–1.39) 0.324 0.93(0.49–1.80) 0.838 0.85(0.38–1.90) 0.687 1.0(0.5–2.1) 0.911 0.785
≥ 18.5 to < 23 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0   
≥ 23 to < 27.5 1.8(1.2–2.9) 0.009 1.9(1.1-3.0) 0.014 2.3(1.3–3.9) 0.004 1.7(1.0-2.9) 0.047 0.124
≥ 27.5 2.0(0.9–4.5) 0.088 3.7(1.8–7.3) < 0.001 1.9(0.7–5.5) 0.239 3.7(1.8–7.8) < 0.001 0.005
Alcohol consumption 5.1(0.3–82.0) 0.251 0.67(0.19–2.32) 0.526 8.7(0.5-144.1) 0.130 0.75(0.21–2.69) 0.656 < 0.001
Family history of diabetes 1.6(0.8-3.0) 0.165 1.0(0.6–1.6) 0.981 0.99(0.48–2.04) 0.967 0.84(0.50–1.41) 0.512 0.717
Family history of hypertension 1.6(1.0-2.4) 0.032 0.78(0.53–1.16) 0.223 1.5(0.9–2.5) 0.100 0.69(0.43–1.08) 0.103 0.021
Current or ever smoker 1.1(0.4–3.4) 0.842 0.79(0.39–1.61) 0.515 1.8(0.4-7.0) 0.421 1.1(0.5–2.3) 0.880 0.398
Parous 1.0(0.5–1.8) 1.000 1.2(0.8–1.7) 0.470 0.68(0.31–1.50) 0.338 1.0(0.7–1.6) 0.880 0.481
Male fetus 1.1(0.7–1.7) 0.633 1.1(0.7–1.6) 0.781 1.1(0.7–1.7) 0.783 1.0(0.7–1.6) 0.868 0.747
  1. Adjusted for maternal age, GWG at early pregnancy, pre-pregnancy BMI group, alcohol consumption, family history of diabetes, family history of hypertension, smoking status, parity, fetal sex
  2. In the adjusted model, 74.4 % of SBC subjects (546 out of 734) were used, 82.9 % of GUSTO subjects (561 out of 677) were used
  3. *P value for the difference between the two cohorts in the adjusted model
  4. Interaction between GWG and pre pregnancy BMI group and fetal sex were included in the model but not significant
  5. Overall interaction for GWG and pre pregnancy BMI group: p = 0.737 for SBC, p = 0.088 for GUSTO
  6. Interaction for GWG and fetal sex: p = 0.254 for SBC, p = 0.674 for GUSTO