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Table 3 Decomposition results for contribution of predictor variables in change of self-reported maternal complications during NFHS 2005–06 to 2015–16, India

From: An assessment of the role of socio-economic, maternal and service utilization factors in increasing self-reported maternal complications in India

Variables % Contribution
Individual factors
Age (years)
  15–19    
  20–24 -0.29 1.14 8.0
  25–29 1.00   
  30–34 0.45   
  35 and Above -0.03   
Education
  No education    
  Primary -0.08 2.21  
  Secondary 0.78   
  Higher 1.51   
Substance Use
  No    
  Yes -1.40 -1.40  
Anemia Status
  No    
  Yes -0.14 -0.14  
Parity
  One    
  Two -2.65 1.91  
  Three 0.27   
  Four and above 4.29   
BMI Status
  Underweight    
  Normal 0.85 4.30  
  Obese 3.45   
Household factors    -5.4
Residence
  Urban    
  Rural -0.71 -0.71  
Religion
  Hindu    
  Muslim 0.05 0.29  
  Others 0.23   
Caste
  SC/ST    
  Non SC/ST 0.07 0.07  
SLI
  Low    
  Medium -3.06 -3.68  
  Higher -0.62   
Region
  North    
  Central -0.89 -1.41  
  East -0.08   
  Northeast 0.09   
  West -0.22   
  South -0.30   
Service utilization factors    19.6
Number of antenatal visits
  No Visit    
  1–3 Visits 0.67 0.57  
  4 & More Visits -0.10   
Place of delivery
  Home    
  Institutional 13.05 13.05  
PNC
  No or more    
  Within 48 h 6.01 6.01  
Birth outcome factors    -1.3
Type of delivery
  Normal    
  Cesarean 3.54 3.54  
Multiple births
  Single    
  Twin 0.02 0.02  
Size of child
  Large    
  Average -2.81 -4.88  
  Small -2.08   
Overall Contribution 20.89   
Number of Total Observation 227,647   
N (NFHS 2005–06) 36,850   
N (NFHS 2015–16) 190,797   
Predicted value of Complication in 2005–06 0.44   
Predicted value of Complication in 2015–16 0.54   
Difference 0.10   
Total explained 0.02   
  1. NFHS National Family Health Survey, BMI Body Mass Index, SLI Standard of Living Index, ANC Anti-Natal Care, SC/ST Scheduled caste/Scheduled tribe, PNC Post-Natal Care, C-Section Caesarean Section