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Table 2 Odds Ratio for maternal complication over background characteristics in India, (NFHS-3 & 4, 2005–06 and 2015–16)

From: An assessment of the role of socio-economic, maternal and service utilization factors in increasing self-reported maternal complications in India

Variables NFHS-3, 2005–06 (N = 36,850) NFHS-4, 2015–16 (N = 190,898)
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Age (years)
 15–19 Ref Ref
 20–24 0.98(0.89–1.08) 0.99(0.94–1.05)
 25–29 0.99(0.89–1.1) 0.99(0.93–1.05)
 30–34 0.98(0.87–1.1) 0.99(0.93–1.05)
 35 and Above 0.98(0.86–1.11) 0.94*(0.88–1.02)
Education
 No education Ref Ref
 Primary 1.09**(1.02–1.17) 1.04**(1.01–1.07)
 Secondary 0.99(0.93–1.05) 1.01(0.98–1.04)
 Higher 0.96(0.87–1.07) 1.03(0.99–1.07)
Substance Use
 No Ref Ref
 Yes 1.21***(1.13–1.3) 1.17***(1.13–1.21)
Anaemia Status
 No Ref Ref
 Yes 1.06**(1.01–1.11) 1.01(0.99–1.03)
Parity
 One Ref Ref
 Two 0.81***(0.76–0.86) 0.86***(0.84–0.88)
 Three 0.83***(0.77–0.9) 0.89***(0.86–0.92)
 Four and above 0.88***(0.81–0.95) 0.93***(0.89–0.96)
BMI Status
 Underweight Ref Ref
 Normal 1.06**(1.01–1.12) 1.06***(1.04–1.09)
 Obese 1.23***(1.13–1.35) 1.23***(1.19–1.27)
Residence
 Urban Ref Ref
 Rural 1.13***(1.07–1.19) 1.06***(1.03–1.08)
Religion
 Hindu Ref Ref
 Muslim 1.24***(1.16–1.32) 1.15***(1.12–1.18)
 Others 1.23***(1.14–1.33) 1.30***(1.25–1.34)
Caste
 SC/ST Ref Ref
 Non SC/ST 1.01(0.96–1.07) 0.98**(0.96–1.02)
SLI
 Low Ref Ref
 Medium 0.93**(0.88–0.98) 0.95***(0.92–0.97)
 High 0.96(0.88–1.05) 1.00(0.96–1.04)
Region
 North Ref Ref
 Central 1.07*(1.03–1.15) 1.26***(1.22–1.29)
 East 1.31***(1.21–1.42) 1.10***(1.06–1.13)
 Northeast 1.03(0.94–1.12) 0.57***(0.55–0.60)
 West 0.91**(0.84–0.99) 0.75***(0.72–0.78)
 South 0.71***(0.65–0.77) 0.93***(0.90–0.97)
Number of ANC visits
 No Visit Ref Ref
 1–3 Visits 0.99(0.92–1.05) 1.01(0.98–1.04)
 4 & more Visits 1.07*(0.99–1.15) 1.08***(1.04–1.11)
Place of delivery
 Home Ref Ref
 Institutional 1.17***(1.10–1.26) 1.05***(1.02–1.08)
PNC
 No or more Ref Ref
 Within 48 h 0.95*(0.89–1.01) 1.11***(1.08–1.13)
Mode of delivery
 Normal Ref Ref
 Caesarean 1.23***(1.14–1.33) 1.24***(1.20–1.27)
Multiple births
 Single Ref Ref
 Twin 1.52***(1.20–1.92) 1.32***(1.19–1.45)
Size of child
 Large Ref Ref
 Average 0.93**(0.88–0.99) 0.87***(0.85–0.89)
 Small 1.17***(1.09–1.25) 1.07***(1.03–1.10)
  1. Ref Reference Group, OR Odds Ratio, C.I Confidence interval; ***p-value < 0.01, **p-value < 0.05, *p-value < 0.10; NFHS National Family Health Survey, BMI Body Mass Index, SLI Standard of Living Index, ANC Anti-Natal Care, SC/ST Scheduled caste/Scheduled tribe, PNC Post-Natal Care, C-Section Caesarean Section