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Table 1 Percentage of women who reported any pregnancy complication during last birth in past five year preceding the survey by selected background characteristics in India, (NFHS3, 2005–06 & NFHS4, 2015–16)

From: An assessment of the role of socio-economic, maternal and service utilization factors in increasing self-reported maternal complications in India

Variables NFHS-3 (2005–06) NFHS-4 (2015–16) p-value for change
N = 36,850 95% CI N = 190,898 95% CI
Age (years)
 15–19 45.7 43.6 47.8 53.9 52.6 55.1 0.001
 20–24 43.5 42.6 44.5 53.7 53.3 54.2 0.001
 25–29 43.0 42.2 43.9 53.3 52.9 53.7 0.001
 30–34 43.5 42.3 44.6 54.5 54.0 55.1 0.001
 35 and Above 44.6 43.1 46.1 53.1 52.5 53.8 0.001
Education
 No education 44.6 43.8 45.4 53.5 53.1 53.9 0.001
 Primary 44.7 43.4 46.1 53.6 53.0 54.2 0.001
 Secondary 41.6 40.8 42.4 52.9 52.6 53.2 0.001
 Higher 43.3 41.6 44.9 56.8 56.1 57.5 0.001
Substance use
 No 43.1 42.6 43.7 53.6 53.4 53.9 0.001
 Yes 47.7 46.4 49.1 54.3 53.6 55.0 0.003
Anaemia status
 No 43.0 42.2 43.9 53.8 53.4 54.1 0.001
 Yes 44.9 44.2 45.6 53.7 53.4 54.0 0.001
Parity
 One 46.1 45.2 47.1 56.2 55.8 56.5 0.001
 Two 40.6 39.7 41.6 51.6 51.2 52.0 0.001
 Three 42.1 40.9 43.3 52.3 51.7 52.8 0.001
 Four and above 45.3 44.3 46.3 54.4 53.8 54.9 0.001
BMI status
 Underweight 43.0 42.1 44.0 51.8 51.3 52.3 0.001
 Normal 44.6 43.9 45.4 53.3 53.0 53.6 0.001
 Obese 44.5 42.8 46.2 56.9 56.3 57.5 0.001
Residence
 Urban 44.6 40.2 41.8 53.8 52.9 53.8 0.001
 Rural 41.0 43.9 45.2 53.4 53.5 54.1 0.001
Religion
 Hindu 42.4 41.8 43.0 53.4 53.1 53.6 0.001
 Muslim 48.5 47.2 49.8 54.0 53.5 54.6 0.001
 Others 46.5 45.1 47.8 57.2 56.5 57.8 0.001
Caste
 SC/ST 42.8 41.96 43.7 53.5 53.2 53.9 0.001
 Non SC/ST 44.0 43.33 44.6 53.7 53.4 54.0 0.001
SLI
 Low 45.8 44.9 46.7 54.8 54.3 55.2 0.001
 Medium 41.8 41.0 42.5 52.7 52.4 53.0 0.001
 High 42.7 41.4 43.8 55.7 55.1 56.2 0.001
Region
 North 41.4 40.2 42.6 53.8 53.3 54.3 0.001
 Central 44.0 42.9 45.1 58.7 58.3 59.1 0.001
 East 52.1 50.8 53.4 53.3 52.8 53.8 0.001
 Northeast 46.6 45.4 47.7 41.1 40.6 41.7 0.001
 West 37.7 36.2 39.2 47.4 46.5 48.2 0.001
 South 35.8 34.6 37.1 54.3 53.6 54.9 0.001
Number of ANC visits
 No visit 44.3 45.3 47.6 52.0 52.4 53.4 0.001
 1–3 visits 43.4 42.5 44.2 53.6 53.5 54.3 0.001
 4 & more visits 43.7 41.4 42.9 54.7 53.5 54.1 0.001
Place of delivery
 Home 44.2 43.5 44.9 52.1 51.6 52.6 0.001
 Institutional 42.8 42.1 43.5 54.0 53.8 54.3 0.001
PNC
 No or more 44.6 43.9 45.3 51.8 51.4 52.2 0.001
 Within 48 h 42.0 41.2 42.7 54.7 54.4 54.9 0.001
Mode of delivery
 Normal 43.4 42.8 43.9 52.8 52.6 53.1 0.001
 C-Section 46.0 44.5 47.4 57.2 56.6 57.8 0.001
Multiple births
 Single 43.5 43.0 44.1 53.6 53.4 53.8 0.001
 Twin 52.6 47.1 58.1 62.9 60.6 65.1 0.035
Size of child
 Large 43.6 42.6 44.7 54.5 54.0 55.2 0.001
 Average 41.8 41.1 42.5 52.7 52.5 53.0 0.001
 Small 47.9 46.9 49.0 57.3 56.7 57.9 0.001
 Total 43.6    53.7    0.001
  1. Note: CI Confidence Interval
  2. NFHS National Family Health Survey, BMI Body Mass Index, SLI Standard of Living Index, ANC Anti-Natal Care, SC/ST Scheduled caste/Scheduled tribe, PNC Post-Natal Care, C-Section Caesarean Section