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Table 2 Sociodemographic correlates regressed on home deliveries in Ghana, 2006 to 2017–2018

From: Prevalence, progress, and social inequalities of home deliveries in Ghana from 2006 to 2018: insights from the multiple indicator cluster surveys

 

2006

2011

2017–18

PR [95% CI]

APR [95% CI]

PR [95% CI]

APR [95% CI]

PR [95% CI]

APR [95% CI]

Total

Age (years)

 15–24

0.995

[0.843,1.174]

1.242*

[1.038,1.486]

0.810*

[0.660,0.994]

1.333*

[1.054,1.685]

0.985

[0.774,1.253]

1.036

[0.774,1.386]

 25–34

0.924

[0.796,1.072]

1.100

[0.976,1.238]

0.751***

[0.633,0.890]

1.040

[0.893,1.211]

0.951

[0.764,1.183]

1.112

[0.900,1.374]

 35 + 

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

Education

 None or pre-primary

4.802***

[2.644,8.723]

1.677

[0.993,2.832]

12.11***

[6.998,20.95]

2.131**

[1.216,3.736]

5.724***

[3.465,9.457]

1.786*

[1.070,2.982]

 Primary

3.706***

[2.032,6.759]

1.462

[0.868,2.463]

7.018***

[4.006,12.30]

1.671

[0.960,2.908]

4.724***

[2.852,7.824]

1.782*

[1.061,2.994]

 JHS

2.498**

[1.379,4.525]

1.251

[0.759,2.061]

4.284***

[2.411,7.609]

1.461

[0.830,2.573]

3.317***

[2.075,5.303]

1.705*

[1.039,2.800]

 Secondary and above

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

Polygyny

 Never/formerly married

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

 In one union

1.193

[0.937,1.520]

1.119

[0.908,1.379]

1.122

[0.841,1.497]

0.876

[0.686,1.117]

0.837

[0.645,1.086]

0.889

[0.670,1.180]

 Have co-wives

1.574***

[1.209,2.049]

1.201

[0.942,1.531]

2.025***

[1.488,2.756]

0.943

[0.715,1.244]

1.413*

[1.032,1.934]

1.051

[0.758,1.457]

Wanted last child

 Yes

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

 Later/No More/others

1.099

[0.966,1.252]

1.042

[0.932,1.166]

1.049

[0.904,1.218]

1.119

[0.975,1.285]

1.109

[0.935,1.316]

1.045

[0.886,1.232]

Parity

 Primiparous

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

 Double

1.190

[0.960,1.475]

1.337**

[1.103,1.621]

2.056***

[1.526,2.771]

1.832***

[1.384,2.426]

1.193

[0.900,1.582]

1.242

[0.941,1.641]

 Multiparous

1.537***

[1.279,1.848]

1.398**

[1.139,1.717]

2.945***

[2.263,3.833]

2.263***

[1.684,3.042]

1.604***

[1.239,2.078]

1.231

[0.907,1.670]

ANC attendance

 less than 4 times

2.829***

[2.226,3.594]

1.605***

[1.322,1.950]

4.349***

[3.472,5.447]

1.767***

[1.412,2.211]

4.626***

[3.480,6.149]

2.443***

[1.808,3.301]

 4–7 times

1.864***

[1.466,2.370]

1.291**

[1.077,1.547]

2.167***

[1.753,2.679]

1.294*

[1.057,1.583]

1.857***

[1.418,2.430]

1.302*

[1.001,1.692]

 8 times and more

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

Previous child loss experience

 No

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

 Yes

1.217***

[1.091,1.359]

0.936

[0.841,1.040]

1.513***

[1.302,1.758]

0.957

[0.830,1.104]

1.340*

[1.055,1.702]

1.049

[0.864,1.272]

Health Insurance

 Uninsured

1.678***

[1.430,1.968]

1.161*

[1.017,1.325]

1.981***

[1.643,2.390]

1.517***

[1.283,1.794]

 Insured

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

Household wealth

 Poorest

7.974***

[4.873,13.05]

3.441***

[1.967,6.016]

24.26***

[10.24,57.46]

6.689***

[2.376,18.83]

11.12***

[6.076,20.34]

4.240***

[2.248,7.999]

 Poorer

6.997***

[4.240,11.55]

3.254***

[1.858,5.700]

16.41***

[6.826,39.44]

5.703***

[2.060,15.79]

8.768***

[4.810,15.98]

3.617***

[1.950,6.707]

 Middle

5.606***

[3.329,9.439]

3.077***

[1.742,5.434]

11.67***

[4.789,28.46]

5.505**

[1.995,15.19]

6.740***

[3.671,12.37]

3.222***

[1.697,6.118]

 Richer

2.616***

[1.506,4.545]

1.908*

[1.097,3.319]

5.747***

[2.273,14.53]

3.303*

[1.217,8.962]

3.913***

[2.061,7.428]

2.509**

[1.298,4.850]

 Richest

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

Urban–Rural residence

 Urban

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

 Rural

2.935***

[2.252,3.826]

1.504**

[1.174,1.928]

3.796***

[2.939,4.903]

1.846***

[1.428,2.387]

3.033***

[2.137,4.305]

1.670**

[1.205,2.314]

Region

 Western

3.717***

[2.162,6.388]

1.491

[0.984,2.261]

3.401***

[1.803,6.414]

0.940

[0.619,1.428]

3.094**

[1.482,6.460]

1.683

[0.756,3.750]

 Central

3.236***

[1.873,5.590]

1.336

[0.811,2.201]

3.339***

[1.794,6.217]

1.186

[0.821,1.715]

3.717***

[1.790,7.717]

2.040

[0.922,4.515]

 Greater Accra

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

Ref

 Volta

3.462***

[2.016,5.947]

1.198

[0.781,1.839]

3.290***

[1.693,6.392]

0.958

[0.609,1.508]

4.625***

[2.277,9.393]

1.699

[0.778,3.711]

 Eastern

3.587***

[2.118,6.076]

1.307

[0.856,1.995]

1.976

[0.977,3.999]

0.836

[0.517,1.352]

3.157**

[1.528,6.523]

1.489

[0.667,3.322]

 Ashanti

2.475**

[1.401,4.373]

1.244

[0.803,1.926]

2.235*

[1.175,4.250]

0.851

[0.553,1.311]

2.691*

[1.249,5.801]

1.712

[0.750,3.905]

 Brong Ahafo

2.624**

[1.439,4.783]

1.088

[0.681,1.736]

3.498***

[1.831,6.683]

0.908

[0.616,1.337]

1.968

[0.867,4.464]

0.984

[0.419,2.309]

 Northern

4.010***

[2.316,6.945]

1.232

[0.795,1.908]

5.674***

[3.109,10.36]

1.094

[0.751,1.593]

6.135***

[3.065,12.28]

2.087

[0.948,4.597]

 Upper East

3.459***

[1.973,6.066]

1.143

[0.731,1.787]

3.096***

[1.650,5.807]

0.633*

[0.419,0.958]

0.747

[0.311,1.792]

0.329*

[0.125,0.865]

 Upper West

4.350***

[2.568,7.371]

1.273

[0.823,1.970]

3.494***

[1.872,6.522]

0.746

[0.498,1.118]

2.831**

[1.326,6.044]

1.022

[0.440,2.373]

Model details

 Number of strata

 

20

 

20

 

20

 Number of Primary Sampling Unit

 

291

 

775

 

649

 Number of Observations

 

1456

 

2873

 

3466

  1. Exponentiated coefficients; 95% confidence intervals in brackets
  2. *p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001