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Table 2 Sociodemographic correlates regressed on home deliveries in Ghana, 2006 to 2017–2018

From: Prevalence, progress, and social inequalities of home deliveries in Ghana from 2006 to 2018: insights from the multiple indicator cluster surveys

  2006 2011 2017–18
PR [95% CI] APR [95% CI] PR [95% CI] APR [95% CI] PR [95% CI] APR [95% CI]
Total
Age (years)
 15–24 0.995
[0.843,1.174]
1.242*
[1.038,1.486]
0.810*
[0.660,0.994]
1.333*
[1.054,1.685]
0.985
[0.774,1.253]
1.036
[0.774,1.386]
 25–34 0.924
[0.796,1.072]
1.100
[0.976,1.238]
0.751***
[0.633,0.890]
1.040
[0.893,1.211]
0.951
[0.764,1.183]
1.112
[0.900,1.374]
 35 +  Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Education
 None or pre-primary 4.802***
[2.644,8.723]
1.677
[0.993,2.832]
12.11***
[6.998,20.95]
2.131**
[1.216,3.736]
5.724***
[3.465,9.457]
1.786*
[1.070,2.982]
 Primary 3.706***
[2.032,6.759]
1.462
[0.868,2.463]
7.018***
[4.006,12.30]
1.671
[0.960,2.908]
4.724***
[2.852,7.824]
1.782*
[1.061,2.994]
 JHS 2.498**
[1.379,4.525]
1.251
[0.759,2.061]
4.284***
[2.411,7.609]
1.461
[0.830,2.573]
3.317***
[2.075,5.303]
1.705*
[1.039,2.800]
 Secondary and above Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Polygyny
 Never/formerly married Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 In one union 1.193
[0.937,1.520]
1.119
[0.908,1.379]
1.122
[0.841,1.497]
0.876
[0.686,1.117]
0.837
[0.645,1.086]
0.889
[0.670,1.180]
 Have co-wives 1.574***
[1.209,2.049]
1.201
[0.942,1.531]
2.025***
[1.488,2.756]
0.943
[0.715,1.244]
1.413*
[1.032,1.934]
1.051
[0.758,1.457]
Wanted last child
 Yes Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Later/No More/others 1.099
[0.966,1.252]
1.042
[0.932,1.166]
1.049
[0.904,1.218]
1.119
[0.975,1.285]
1.109
[0.935,1.316]
1.045
[0.886,1.232]
Parity
 Primiparous Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Double 1.190
[0.960,1.475]
1.337**
[1.103,1.621]
2.056***
[1.526,2.771]
1.832***
[1.384,2.426]
1.193
[0.900,1.582]
1.242
[0.941,1.641]
 Multiparous 1.537***
[1.279,1.848]
1.398**
[1.139,1.717]
2.945***
[2.263,3.833]
2.263***
[1.684,3.042]
1.604***
[1.239,2.078]
1.231
[0.907,1.670]
ANC attendance
 less than 4 times 2.829***
[2.226,3.594]
1.605***
[1.322,1.950]
4.349***
[3.472,5.447]
1.767***
[1.412,2.211]
4.626***
[3.480,6.149]
2.443***
[1.808,3.301]
 4–7 times 1.864***
[1.466,2.370]
1.291**
[1.077,1.547]
2.167***
[1.753,2.679]
1.294*
[1.057,1.583]
1.857***
[1.418,2.430]
1.302*
[1.001,1.692]
 8 times and more Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Previous child loss experience
 No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 1.217***
[1.091,1.359]
0.936
[0.841,1.040]
1.513***
[1.302,1.758]
0.957
[0.830,1.104]
1.340*
[1.055,1.702]
1.049
[0.864,1.272]
Health Insurance
 Uninsured 1.678***
[1.430,1.968]
1.161*
[1.017,1.325]
1.981***
[1.643,2.390]
1.517***
[1.283,1.794]
 Insured Ref Ref Ref Ref
Household wealth
 Poorest 7.974***
[4.873,13.05]
3.441***
[1.967,6.016]
24.26***
[10.24,57.46]
6.689***
[2.376,18.83]
11.12***
[6.076,20.34]
4.240***
[2.248,7.999]
 Poorer 6.997***
[4.240,11.55]
3.254***
[1.858,5.700]
16.41***
[6.826,39.44]
5.703***
[2.060,15.79]
8.768***
[4.810,15.98]
3.617***
[1.950,6.707]
 Middle 5.606***
[3.329,9.439]
3.077***
[1.742,5.434]
11.67***
[4.789,28.46]
5.505**
[1.995,15.19]
6.740***
[3.671,12.37]
3.222***
[1.697,6.118]
 Richer 2.616***
[1.506,4.545]
1.908*
[1.097,3.319]
5.747***
[2.273,14.53]
3.303*
[1.217,8.962]
3.913***
[2.061,7.428]
2.509**
[1.298,4.850]
 Richest Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Urban–Rural residence
 Urban Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Rural 2.935***
[2.252,3.826]
1.504**
[1.174,1.928]
3.796***
[2.939,4.903]
1.846***
[1.428,2.387]
3.033***
[2.137,4.305]
1.670**
[1.205,2.314]
Region
 Western 3.717***
[2.162,6.388]
1.491
[0.984,2.261]
3.401***
[1.803,6.414]
0.940
[0.619,1.428]
3.094**
[1.482,6.460]
1.683
[0.756,3.750]
 Central 3.236***
[1.873,5.590]
1.336
[0.811,2.201]
3.339***
[1.794,6.217]
1.186
[0.821,1.715]
3.717***
[1.790,7.717]
2.040
[0.922,4.515]
 Greater Accra Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Volta 3.462***
[2.016,5.947]
1.198
[0.781,1.839]
3.290***
[1.693,6.392]
0.958
[0.609,1.508]
4.625***
[2.277,9.393]
1.699
[0.778,3.711]
 Eastern 3.587***
[2.118,6.076]
1.307
[0.856,1.995]
1.976
[0.977,3.999]
0.836
[0.517,1.352]
3.157**
[1.528,6.523]
1.489
[0.667,3.322]
 Ashanti 2.475**
[1.401,4.373]
1.244
[0.803,1.926]
2.235*
[1.175,4.250]
0.851
[0.553,1.311]
2.691*
[1.249,5.801]
1.712
[0.750,3.905]
 Brong Ahafo 2.624**
[1.439,4.783]
1.088
[0.681,1.736]
3.498***
[1.831,6.683]
0.908
[0.616,1.337]
1.968
[0.867,4.464]
0.984
[0.419,2.309]
 Northern 4.010***
[2.316,6.945]
1.232
[0.795,1.908]
5.674***
[3.109,10.36]
1.094
[0.751,1.593]
6.135***
[3.065,12.28]
2.087
[0.948,4.597]
 Upper East 3.459***
[1.973,6.066]
1.143
[0.731,1.787]
3.096***
[1.650,5.807]
0.633*
[0.419,0.958]
0.747
[0.311,1.792]
0.329*
[0.125,0.865]
 Upper West 4.350***
[2.568,7.371]
1.273
[0.823,1.970]
3.494***
[1.872,6.522]
0.746
[0.498,1.118]
2.831**
[1.326,6.044]
1.022
[0.440,2.373]
Model details
 Number of strata   20   20   20
 Number of Primary Sampling Unit   291   775   649
 Number of Observations   1456   2873   3466
  1. Exponentiated coefficients; 95% confidence intervals in brackets
  2. *p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001