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Table 1 Summary statistics of sociodemographic correlates and home deliveries in Ghana, 2006 to 2017–18

From: Prevalence, progress, and social inequalities of home deliveries in Ghana from 2006 to 2018: insights from the multiple indicator cluster surveys

  2006 2011 2017–18
Delivered at home Delivered at home Delivered at home
n (%) NO YES N NO YES n% NO YES
Total 1456 (100) 49.44 50.56 2873 (100) 68.65 31.35 3466 (100) 78.63 21.37
Age (years) P = 0.560    P ≤ 0.005    P = 0.300   
15–24 433 (29.73) 47.72 52.28 705 (24.53) 69.35 30.65 952 (27.47) 78.36 21.64
25–34 693 (47.60) 51.45 48.55 1436 (49.97) 71.60 28.40 1634 (47.16) 79.10 20.90
35 +  330 (22.67) 47.45 52.55 733 (25.50) 62.18 37.35 879 (25.37) 78.03 21.97
Education P ≤ 0.001    P ≤ 0.001    P ≤ 0.001   
None or pre-primary 537 (36.87) 30.76 69.24 833 (29.00) 43.48 56.52 774 (22.34) 67.24 32.76
Primary 320 (21.98) 46.56 53.44 642 (22.34) 67.24 32.76 729 (21.02) 72.97 27.03
JHS 496 (34.05) 63.99 36.01 1007 (35.04) 80.01 19.99 1341 (38.70) 81.02 18.98
Secondary and above 103 (7.09) 85.58 14.42 391 (13.62) 95.33 4.67 622 (17.94) 94.28 5.72
Polygyny P ≤ 0.001    P ≤ 0.001    P ≤ 0.001   
Never/ formerly married 165 (11.33) 59.24 40.76 293 (10.19) 75.05 24.95 592 (17.08) 77.61 22.39
In one union 1,027 (70.52) 51.36 48.64 2112 (73.52) 72.01 27.99 2331 (67.25) 81.27 18.73
Have co-wives 264 (18.14) 35.85 64.15 468 (16.29) 49.47 50.53 543 (15.66) 68.37 31.63
Wanted last-child P = 0.060    P = 0.107    P = 0.109   
Yes 884 (60.74) 51.34 48.66 1630 (56.74) 69.30 30.70 1711 (49.37) 79.75 20.25
Later/No More/others 572 (39.26) 46.50 53.50 1243 (43.26) 67.79 32.21 1755 (50.63) 77.53 22.47
Parity P ≤ 0.001    P ≤ 0.001    P ≤ 0.001   
Primiparous 321 (22.04) 62.47 37.53 619 (21.54) 86.73 13.27 791 (22.82) 84.60 15.40
Double 301 (20.65) 55.34 44.66 527 (18.33) 72.72 27.28 660 (19.05) 81.63 18.37
Multiparous 834 (57.30) 42.30 57.70 1727 (60.13) 60.93 39.07 2015 (58.13) 75.29 24.71
ANC attendance P ≤ 0.001    P ≤ 0.001    P ≤ 0.001   
less than 4 times 389 (26.71) 25.26 74.74 384 (13.38) 32.89 67.11 519 (14.98) 51.66 48.37
4–7 times 717 (49.23) 50.75 49.25 1436 (49.98) 66.55 33.45 2031 (58.61) 80.60 19.40
8 times and more 350 (24.06) 73.58 26.42 1053 (36.64) 84.57 15.43 915 (26.41) 89.55 10.45
Previous child loss experience P ≤ 0.001    P ≤ 0.001    P ≤ 0.001   
No 1085 (74.51) 52.09 47.91 2186 (76.08) 72.07 27.93 2849 (82.20) 79.85 20.15
Yes 371 (25.49) 41.68 58.32 687 (23.92) 57.75 42.25 617 (17.80) 72.99 27.01
Health Insurance     P ≤ 0.001    P ≤ 0.001   
Uninsured 773 (26.89) 55.51 44.49 1311 (37.82) 69.11 30.89
Insured 2100 (73.11) 73.48 26.52 2155 (62.18) 84.41 15.59
Household wealth P ≤ 0.001    P ≤ 0.001    P ≤ 0.001   
Poorest 335 (23.00) 22.88 77.12 637 (22.16) 38.92 61.08 747 (21.55) 63.17 36.83
Poorer 347 (23.86) 32.34 67.66 621 (21.61) 58.68 41.32 694 (20.03) 70.95 29.05
Middle 277 (19.04) 45.78 54.22 568 (19.79) 70.60 29.40 676 (19.51) 77.67 22.33
Richer 286 (19.61) 74.70 25.30 517 (17.98) 85.53 14.47 709 (20.45) 87.04 12.96
Richest 211 (14.50) 90.33 9.67 530 (18.46) 97.48 2.52 640 (18.46) 96.69 3.31
Urban–Rural residence P ≤ 0.001    P ≤ 0.001    P ≤ 0.001   
Urban 498 (34.21) 77.76 22.24 1214 (42.25) 88.01 11.99 1464 (42.25) 90.17 9.83
Rural 958 (65.79) 34.71 65.29 1659 (57.75) 54.48 45.52 2002 (57.75) 70.18 29.82
Region P ≤ 0.001    P ≤ 0.001    P ≤ 0.001   
Western 154 (10.60) 39.41 60.59 306 (10.66) 63.15 36.85 400 (11.53) 78.98 21.02
Central 112 (7.70) 47.25 52.75 279 (9.72) 63.81 36.19 341 (9.83) 74.75 25.25
Greater Accra 177 (12.16) 83.70 16.30 451 (15.71) 89.16 10.84 332 (9.58) 93.21 6.79
Volta 103 (7.10) 43.55 58.48 214 (7.46) 64.35 35.65 285 (8.23) 68.59 31.41
Eastern 195 (13.37) 41.52 58.48 327 (11.37) 78.58 21.42 402 (11.60) 78.56 21.44
Ashanti 222 (15.22) 59.65 40.35 511 (17.78) 75.78 24.22 788 (22.73) 81.72 18.28
Brong Ahafo 115 (7.87) 57.23 42.77 258 (8.99) 62.10 37.90 330 (9.51) 86.64 13.36
Northern 278 (19.10) 34.62 65.38 321 (11.17) 38.51 61.49 388 (11.19) 58.33 41.67
Upper East 61 (4.16) 43.60 56.40 120 (4.17) 66.45 33.55 112 (3.25) 94.93 5.07
Upper West 40 (2.72) 29.08 70.92 85 (2.97) 62.13 37.87 88 (2.55) 80.77 19.23