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Table 4 Identified themes and sub-themes

From: Gestational diabetes mellitus: a qualitative study of lived experiences of South Asian immigrant women and perspectives of their health care providers in Melbourne, Australia

Major themes


Heterogeneity of South Asian women

• Diversity in language, religion, practices and attitudes; but universality in ‘lack of self-care’

Health care providers: Major challenges

Information provision

Providing optimal GDM care

• Busy clinics, no time to individualise information

• Difficulty managing vegetarians

• Difficulty emphasising importance of exercise in pregnancy

Women: Major challenges

Information on lifestyle modification

• Food

• Exercise

• Lack of culture specific advice

• Confusion – lifestyle messages unclear

▪ Relating to food types, portion size, cooking methods, timing

▪ Exercise in pregnancy

• One size fits all approach – no advice pertaining to women’s cultural and regional food consumption patterns

Women’s GDM experiences:

GDM controlling pregnancy

• Constant state of hunger

• Pregnancy experience related to checking blood sugars all the time

• Increasing diagnosis of GDM in pregnancy