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Table 2 Association between variables and adequacy and inadequacy (insufficient and excessive) gestational weight gain in pregnancy women. University Hospital from a Metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2019

From: Inadequacy of gestational weight gain during high-risk pregnancies is not associated with household food insecurity

  Gestational weight gain
  Adequacy Inadequacy p value*
Variables Insufficient Excessive
  %a %a %a
Maternal age     0.197**
≤ 35 years old 21.1 26.6 52.3  
> 35 years old 28.2 12.8 59.0  
Race/ethnicity     0.812
White 19.2 23.1 57.7  
Black/mixed 23.1 24.1 52.8  
Marital status     0.165**
Single/Divorced/Widowed 23.3 19.8 56.9  
Married 18.2 34.1 47.8  
Educational level     0.021**
< 9 11.1 48.1 40.7  
9-15 24.6 19.5 55.9  
≥ 16 20.0 13.3 66.7  
Consumption of potable water     0.479
Yes 20.0 24.0 56.0  
No 29.4 23.5 47.1  
Family income     0.950
≤ 2 minimum wages 22.7 23.6 53.6  
> 2 minimum wages 20.4 25.0 54.5  
Level of Security/Food insecurity (FI)     0.099**
Food security 21.7 23.2 55.1  
Mild FI 30.3 21.2 48.5  
Moderate/severe FI - 31.6 68.4  
Gestational trimester in first antenatal care PHCc     0.928
1st trimester 21.8 20.8 57.4  
2nd - 3rd trimester 20.7 24.1 55.2  
Gestational trimester in first antenatal care UHd     
1st trimester 22.2 22.2 55.6 0.971
2nd-3rdtrimester 21.7 24.2 54.2  
Number visits prenatal     0.178**
< 8 23.7 17.5 58.7  
≥ 8 20.0 30.0 50.0  
Number previous pregnancy     0.633
1 17.4 28.3 54.4  
2 - 3 27.1 25.4 47.5  
≥ 4 13.0 30.4 56.5  
Consumption of alcohol     0.129**
Yes 27.3 45.4 27.3  
No 21.5 22.1 56.4  
Current smoker     0.021**
Yes 10.0 60.0 30.0  
No 22.7 21.3 56.0  
Pre pregnancy BMIb     0.874
Low weight 25.0 25.0 50.0  
Normal 27.3 21.8 50.9  
Overweight/Obese 19.6 24.7 55.7  
Weeks’ gestation at delivery     0.193**
< 40 weeks 33.3 18.2 48.5  
≥ 40 weeks 18.6 27.9 53.5  
  1. aProportions
  2. bBody Mass Index (Kg/m2)
  3. c Primary Health Care Service
  4. d University Hospital
  5. * Chi squared test
  6. **p value <0.20