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Table 1 Proportion (%) and 95% confidence interval (CI) in pregnant women. University Hospital from a Metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2019

From: Inadequacy of gestational weight gain during high-risk pregnancies is not associated with household food insecurity

Variables Proportion (%) 95% CI
Total GWGa   
Insufficient 23.7 17.8-31.1
Adequacy 21.9 16.1-29.0
Excessive 54.4 46.5-62.0
Maternal age   
≤ 35 years old 72.8 65.1-79.4
> 35 years old 27.2 20.6-34.8
Race/ethnicity   
White 32.5 25.8-40.0
Black/mixed-race 67.5 60.0-74.1
Marital status   
Single/Divorced/Widowed 28.4 22.0-35.7
Married 71.6 64.3-78.0
Educational level   
< 9 years 16.6 11.6-23.0
9 – 15 years 74.5 67.4-80.6
> 15 years 8.9 5.4-14.2
Consumption of potable water   
Yes 79.0 72.1-84.6
No 21.0 15.4-27.8
Family income   
≤ 2 minimum wages 69.1 61.5-75.8
>2 minimum wages 30.9 24.2-38.4
Level of Security/Food insecurity (FI)   
Food security 43.5 36.1-51.3
Mild FI 44.2 36.7-52.0
Moderate/severe FI 12.3 8.02-18.3
Gestational trimester in first antenatal care PHCc   
1st trimester 77.3 69.3-83.7
2nd - 3rd trimester 22.7 16.3-30.7
Gestational trimester in first antenatal care UHd   
1st trimester 23.2 17.3-30.3
2nd-3rd trimester 76.8 69.7-82.7
Number visits prenatal   
< 8 50.9 43.3-58.4
≥ 8 49.1 41.6-56.6
Number previous pregnancy   
1 34.3 26.7-42.8
2 – 3 46.3 37.9-54.8
≥ 4 19.4 13.5-27.0
Consumption of alcohol   
Yes 7.1 4.1-12.2
No 92.9 87.8-96.0
Current smoker   
Yes 6.5 3.6-11.4
No 93.5 88.6-96.4
Pre pregnancy BMIb   
Low weight 2.5 0.9-6.7
Normal 35.3 28.1-43.1
Overweight/ Obesity 62.2 54.2-69.5
Weeks’ gestation at delivery   
< 40 weeks 27.5 20.2-36.2
≥ 40 weeks 72.5 63.7-79.8
  1. aGestational weight gain estimated according Institute of Medicine (2009)
  2. bBody Mass Index (Kg/m2)
  3. cPrimary Health Care Service
  4. dUniversity Hospital