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Table 3 Birth characteristics in Western Australia (2000–2013) and New South Wales (2002–2008) by plurality and Aboriginality

From: Pregnancy and birth characteristics of Aboriginal twins in two Australian states: a data linkage study

  Western Australia
(2000–2013)
New South Wales
(2002–2008)
 
Aboriginal Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal  
Characteristic Twin
N = 880
n (%)
Singleton
N = 33,229
n (%)
Twin
N = 794
n (%)
Singleton
N = 31,524
n (%)
Twin
N = 18,338
n (%)
Singleton
N = 582,355
n (%)
 
Groups compared and statistical significance reported1 A A B B C C  
   D   D   
Hospital category for birthABCD
 Public principal referral/women’s 573 (65) 8608 (26) 324 (41) 8204 (26) 8689 (47) 189,260 (32)  
 Large public 141 (16) 9397 (28) 394 (50) 17,171 (54) 4595 (25) 209,070 (36)  
 Medium/small public 105 (12) 12,032 (36) 42 (5) 4759 (15) 318 (2) 35,198 (6)  
 Private 54 (6) 2730 (8) 28 (4) 1201 (4) 4658 (25) 146,078 (25)  
 Born outside hospital 7 (1) 345 (1) 6 (1) 189 (1) 78 (< 1) 2749 (< 1)  
Mother transferred prior to birth2,ABCd 116 (13) 1358 (4) 40 (17) 559 (6) 616 (11) 3456 (2)  
Time from home to hospital (median (IQR))ABCD 38 (20, 401) 19 (9, 51) 21 (11, 49) 19 (10, 39) 20 (11, 35) 17 (11, 28)  
 0–29 min 324 (37) 19,695 (60) 440 (56) 20,668 (66) 12,631 (69) 437,239 (76)  
 30–59 min 146 (17) 3110 (9) 174 (22) 5833 (19) 3604 (20) 103,700 (18)  
 1 h-2 h 80 (9) 2889 (9) 108 (14) 3522 (11) 1558 (9) 31,413 (5)  
 3 h or greater 269 (31) 4342 (13) 66 (8) 1227 (4) 392 (2) 4529 (1)  
 Location of WA private hospital unknown 54 (6) 2730 (8)  
PresentationABC
 Vertex 558 (63) 31,693 (95) 196 (67) 11,957 (96) 4532 (73) 200,288 (96)  
 Breech 291 (33) 1165 (4) 84 (29) 389 (3) 1482 (24) 7561 (4)  
 Other 31 (4) 371 (1) 11 (4) 97 (1) 215 (3) 1581 (1)  
DeliveryABCD
 Vaginal birth 427 (49) 25,564 (77) 317 (40) 24,469 (78) 6765 (37) 421,801 (72)  
  Spontaneous labour 258 (29) 19,269 (58) 212 (27) 18,411 (58) 3706 (20) 302,880 (52)  
  Induced labour 169 (19) 6295 (19) 105 (13) 6058 (19) 3059 (17) 118,921 (20)  
 Caesarean 453 (51) 7665 (23) 477 (60) 7022 (22) 11,567 (63) 160,129 (28)  
  Labour
   Spontaneous labour 134 (15) 2279 (7) 187 (24) 2112 (7) 3032 (17) 40,546 (7)  
   Induced labour 39 (4) 1440 (4) 16 (2) 1225 (4) 849 (5) 27,946 (5)  
   No labour 280 (32) 3946 (12) 274 (35) 3685 (12) 7686 (42) 91,637 (16)  
  Planned/emergency    
   Planned caesarean 166 (19) 2999 (9)  
   Emergency caesarean 287 (33) 4666 (14)  
Instruments usedCd
 No 803 (91) 30,084 (91) 755 (95) 29,526 (94) 16,912 (92) 519,869 (89)  
 Yes 77 (9) 3145 (9) 39 (5) 1973 (6) 1420 (8) 62,182 (11)  
Accoucheur (WA)3        Model of care (NSW)3
 ObstetricianA 319 (36) 5683 (17) 42 (14) 1298 (10) 2818 (45) 75,804 (36) Private obstetricianbCD
 Other medical practitionerA 553 (63) 8842 (27) 223 (76) 5274 (42) 3274 (52) 77,227 (37) Hospital-based medicalbCD
 MidwifeA 195 (22) 19,998 (60) 30 (10) 2260 (18) 150 (2) 15,807 (8) General practitionerBCD
 StudentA 82 (9) 4569 (14) 192 (65) 8948 (72) 3570 (57) 132,379 (63) Hospital-based midwifebCd
 Self/other/unknown 28 (3) 855 (3) 0 (0) 20 (< 1) 9 (< 1) 519 (< 1) Independent midwife
  1. IQR Interquartile range. 1The superscripts ABCDabcd which appear next to the demographic factors indicate whether two groups were statistically significantly different: A or a for a comparison of WA Aboriginal singletons and twins; B or b for a comparison of NSW Aboriginal singletons and twins; C or c for a comparison of NSW non-Aboriginal singletons and twins; and D or d for a comparison of NSW Aboriginal twins and NSW non-Aboriginal twins. Pearson’s chi-squared tests were conducted. A capital letter indicates p < 0.001 and a lower-case letter indicates 0.001 < p < 0.05. 2Mother transferred prior to birth was only collected comprehensively from 2007 in NSW so only data from 2007 and 2008 births are reported. 3Categories of accoucheur (WA) and model of care (NSW) are not mutually exclusive. Data were missing for: hospital category for birth (117 infants in WA, 0 in NSW), mother transferred prior to the birth (434 infants in WA, 440817 in NSW), time from home to hospital (469 infants in WA, 5907 in NSW), presentation (0 infants in WA, 404617 in NSW), delivery (0 infants in WA, 464 in NSW), instruments used (0 infants in WA, 335 in NSW), and model of care (404,184 in NSW)