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Table 5 Results of the correlations (Spearman correlation coefficients r) between the frequencies of listening to music and singing with the dependent subjective variables at T2. Results of the comparison between the intervention group and the control group are listed with Fisher’s z

From: The influence of maternal singing on well-being, postpartum depression and bonding – a randomised, controlled trial

   n Frequency singing (baby) Frequency singing (oneself) Frequency playing music (baby) Frequency listening music (oneself)
STAI State IG 58 - .26 * - .24   - .23   - .10  
CG 58 .05   - .39 ** - .16   - .20  
z   −1.65 * 0.88   −0.38   0.53  
EPDS IG 56 - .08   - .28 * - .08   - .22  
CG 57 .12   - .23   - .14   - .15  
z   0.99   −0.28   0.33   −0.33  
VAS comfort maternal role IG 57 .35 ** .41 ** .37 ** .24  
CG 58 .02   .31 * .11   .05  
z   1.81 * 0.62   1.42   0.99  
VAS closeness to the baby IG 54 .14   .21   - .07   .14  
CG 60 .20   .13   .15   .04  
z   −0.34   0.42   −1.12   0.52  
PBQ IG 57 - .19   - .29 * - .23   - .33 *
CG 59 .01   - .08   - .06   - .07  
z   −1.04   −1.16   −0.91   −1.40  
  1. Note. IG = intervention group, CG = control group, * p < .05, ** p < .01. STAI: State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory; EPDS: Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale; VAS: visual analogue scale; PDQ: Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire