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Table 4 Descriptive statistics (absolute values of the frequencies of singing and playing music for onself and for the baby) at the second time of measurement (T2), separately listed for the intervention and the control group. Mean rank scores are additionally listed for interpretion of the Mann-Whitney U tests

From: The influence of maternal singing on well-being, postpartum depression and bonding – a randomised, controlled trial

  Frequency singing (baby) Frequency singing (oneself) Frequency playing music (baby) Frequency listening music (oneself)
IG never 1 17 1 8
once per week 1 15 5 11
several times per week 13 15 17 19
once per day 13 6 20 12
several times per day 31 6 16 9
Mrank 63.45 66.69 70.11 67.43
CG never 1 29 9 19
once per week 3 12 12 15
several times per week 17 13 16 11
once per day 12 2 15 7
several times per day 28 5 9 9
Mrank 57.65 54.51 51.20 53.80
  1. Note. IG = intervention group (n = 59), CG = control group (n = 61)