Skip to main content

Table 2 Descriptive statistics (mean values and in parentheses standard deviations) of the variables that were measured during the music intervention session (pre and post)

From: The influence of maternal singing on well-being, postpartum depression and bonding – a randomised, controlled trial

  Pre intervention Post intervention p – valueA n
SAM valence 1.85 (0.58) 1.61 (0.50) .002 51
SAM arousal 4.38 (0.77) 4.90 (0.55) < .001 50
SAM dominance 4.30 (0.75) 4.49 (0.68) .008 53
VAS perceived closeness to the baby 8.85 (1.08) 9.26 (0.73) .001 52
VAS comfort with maternal role 7.73 (1.27) 8.71 (1.07) < .001 49
Saliva Cortisol (nmol/l) 3.55 (1.71) 3.01 (1.54) .023 50
  1. Note. A = t-tests for dependent samples for the comparison between pre and post intervention. SAM: Self-Assessment Manikin; VAS: visual analogue scale; n = participants included in each analysis