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Table 1 Sample characteristics. Descriptive statistics (means (standard deviations)) and results of calculations of group differences (p-values) at baseline

From: The influence of maternal singing on well-being, postpartum depression and bonding – a randomised, controlled trial

  Control group   Intervention group   
  M SD n M SD n p-value
AgeA 34.31 (4.19) 61 33.67 (3.94) 58 p = .394C
Gestational AgeB 38.76 (3.67) 61 39.05 (1.51) 57 p = .713C
STAI Trait 47.00 (5.25) 60 46.53 (4.85) 53 p = .627C
STAI State 36.06 (9.89) 58 36.63 (9.10) 54 p = .753 C
EPDS 7.13 (4.34) 56 6.36 (4.04) 54 p = .341 C
VAS comfort with the maternal role 8.59 (1.25) 57 8.58 (1.15) 53 p = .970 C
VAS closeness to the baby 9.49 (0.65) 55 9.34 (0.82) 53 p = .277 C
PBQ 5.51 (4.12) 54 5.14 (3.98) 54 p = .630 C
  1. Note. A = in years at the time of childbirth, B = in weeks at the time of childbirth, C = result of an independent-samples t-test. STAI: State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory; EPDS: Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale; VAS: visual analogue scale; PDQ: Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire; n = participants included in the analysis