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Table 2 The comparison of Mean ± SD OR Frequency (%) of childbirth outcomes in control and intervention groups

From: The effectiveness of a Pilates exercise program during pregnancy on childbirth outcomes: a randomised controlled clinical trial

Variable Control group (n = 52) Intervention group (n = 51) P-value* Cohen’s d
Mean ± SD Mean ± SD
Pain intensity at 6 cm dilation based on VAS 6.14 ± 1.07 5.04 ± 0.99 0.000 1.05
Pain intensity at 8 cm dilation based on VAS 7.46 ± 1.16 6.20 ± 0.87 0.000 1.23
Pain intensity at full cervical dilation based on VAS 8.51 ± 1.14 7.44 ± 0.81 0.000 1.07
Duration of active phase of labor (min) 164 ± 99.81 110 ± 70.94 0.004 0.61
Duration of second stage of labor (min) 50.36 ± 38.59 33.49 ± 24.51 0.043 0.52
1 min APGAR score 8.58 ± 0.96 8.86 ± 0.40 0.074 0.39
5 min APGAR score 9.88 ± 0.38 9.94 ± 0.24 0.468 0.18
Administered oxytocin (mL) 620.19 ± 783.73 396 ± 469.02 0.160 0.36
Variable Frequency (%) Frequency (%) P-value**
Episiotomy Yes 37 (88.1) 32 (71.1) 0.051
No 5 (11.9) 13 (28.9)
Type of delivery Vaginal 42 (80.8) 45 (88.2) 0.296
Cesarean 10 (19.2) 6 (11.8)
Satisfaction with delivery Unsatisfied 6 (14.3) 1 (2.2) 0.000
Satisfied 29 (69.0) 19 (42.2)
Very satisfied 7 (16.7) 25 (55.6)
  1. The symbols * and ** are the values based on paired comparisons (the independent t-test/ Mann-Whitney test) and chi-squared test, respectively