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Table 1 Characteristics of Chinese pregnant women in Shanghai (n = 953)

From: Vitamin D status and vitamin D deficiency risk factors among pregnancy of Shanghai in China

Variable/group 25(OH)D (ng/ml) P value Percentage with 25(OH)D (ng/ml) P value
n Mean 95%CI n  < 12 12–19 20–29 30–50
Total 953 16 11–21   953 31.8% (303) 40.7% (388) 25.1% (239) 2.4% (23)  
Age (years)
 20–25 120 16 15–17 8.5 120 31.7% (38) 42.5% (51) 25.8% (31) 0.0% (0) 17.6
 25–30 471 16 15–16   471 36.5% (172) 38.4% (181) 22.5% (106) 2.5% (12)  
 30–35 274 17 16–18   274 26.3% (72) 41.6% (114) 29.6% (81) 2.6% (7)  
  ≥ 35 88 17 15–18 0.04 88 23.9% (21) 47.7% (42) 23.9% (21) 4.6% (4) 0.04
Parity
 0 671 16 15–17 2.7 671 30.7% (206) 41.3% (277) 26.1% (175) 1.9% (13) 45
 1 248 15 14–16   248 35.1% (87) 40.7% (101) 23.4% (58) 0.8% (2)  
  ≥ 2 34 14 12–15 0.04 34 29.4% (10) 29.4% (10) 17.7% (6) 23.5% (80) 0.001
Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2)
 Underweight 119 17 16–18 14 119 16.0% (19) 52.1% (62) 28.6% (34) 21.1% (4) 29
 Normal 623 16 15–17   623 32.1% (200) 38.2% (238) 27.1% (169) 2.6% (16)  
 Overweight 162 15 14–16   162 40.7% (66) 40.7% (66) 17.9% (29) 0.6% (1)  
 Obese 49 14 13–16 0.003 49 36.7% (18) 44.9% (22) 14.3% (7) 4.1% (2) 0.01
Gestational diabetes mellitus
 Yes 56 16 15–18 13 56 39.3% (22) 32.1% (18) 25.0% (14) 3.6% (2) 2.4
 No 897 15 13–16 0.02 897 31.3% (281) 41.3% (370) 25.1% (225) 2.3% (21) 0.01
Gestational Hyperlipemia
 No 931 16 15–17 0.4 931 31.9% (297) 40.7% (379) 25.1% (234) 2.3% (21) 0.6
 Yes 22 15 13–16 0.7 22 27.3% (6) 40.9% (9) 22.7% (5) 9.1% (2) 0.9