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Table 1 Review of fetuses with umbilical drainage to the coronary sinus directly or through a ductus venosus

From: Prenatal diagnosis of an aberrant ductus venosus draining into the coronary sinus using two- and three-dimensional echocardiography: a case report

References Case Referral indication GA at diagnosis Venosus connection Additional US findings Color technique Chromosomal anomaly Outcome
Volpe et al (Italy) [10] 1 Suspected CHD 26 UV/CS Cardiomegaly, anorectal malformations CDFI Normal Alive after surgery
Chi et al (USA) [14] 2 Suspected CHD 20 UV/CS RA dilatation CDFI NA NNA
Perles et al (Israel) [5] 3 Cardiomegaly 24 UV/CS PLSVC, cardiomegaly, TR CDFI Normal NNA
Achiron et al (Israel) [15] 4 Ascites 24 UV/CS CAPVS, No IVC, RLCV, mitral atresia CDFI NA TOP
Shen et al (Israel) [16] 5 NA 23 UV/CS Ebstein anomaly 3D HDFI, 3D B-flow Normal Alive after surgery
6 NA 26 UV/CS LSUA 3D HDFI, 3D B-flow Normal NNA
7 NA 25 UV/CS Cardiomegaly, TR, ASD, PLSVC 3D HDFI, 3D B-flow Normal Hyperammonemia
Jowett et al (UK) [17] 8 Absent corpus callosum 25 UV/CS PRUV, agenesis of the corpus callosum, diaphragmatic hernia CDFI NA NNA
McBrien et al (Canada) [18] 9 Suspected CHD 24 UV/LSVC/CS Absent nasal bone, diaphragmatic eventration NA NA NNA
10 Suspected CHD 21 UV/LSVC/CS Renal pelviectasis NA NA NNA
Qian et al (China) [19] 11 Suspected CS dilatation 24 UV/DV/CS None CDFI, 3D B-flow NA NNA
Ben et al (France) [20] 12 Suspected atrial abnormality 32 UV/DV/CS None CDFI NA NNA
13-14 Suspected atrial abnormality NA DV/CS None HDFI NA NNA
15 Suspected atrial CS dilatation NA DV/CS None HDFI NA NNA
Wang et ala (China) 16 Suspected CS dilatation 23 DV/CS None HDFI, R-flow, 3D HDFI Normal NNA
  1. Abbreviations: 3D three-dimensional, ASD atrial septal defect, CAPVS congenital agenesis of the portal venous system, CDFI color Doppler flow imaging, CHD congenital heart disease, CS coronary sinus, DV ductus venosus, GA gestational age, HDFI high definition flow imaging, IVC inferior vena cava, RLCV rudimentary left cardinal vein, LSUA left single umbilical artery, LSVC left superior vena cava, PLSVC persistent left superior vena cava, PRUV persistent right umbilical vein, NA not applicable, NNA neonatal alive, RA right atrium, R-flow radiant flow, TR tricuspid regurgitation, TOP termination of pregnancy, US Ultrasonographic, UV umbilical vein
  2. athe current case