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Table 3 Indications for caesarean sections

From: Management of prolonged first stage of labour in a low-resource setting: lessons learnt from rural Malawi

Indication N (%)
Cephalopelvic disproportion 150 (23.3%)
Fetal distress 82 (12.7%)
Prolonged first stage of labour 79 (12.2%)
Two or more previous CS 57 (8.8%)
Fetal malpresentation (e.g. breech) 53 (8.2%)
Prolonged second stage of labour 30 (4.7%)
Failed VBAC 20 (3.1%)
APH / placental abruption 19 (3.0%)
Obstructed labour 16 (2.5%)
Eclampsia 14 (2.2%)
Pre-eclampsia 10 (1.6%)
Cervical dystocia 10 (1.6%)
Cord prolapse 9 (1.4%)
Other 42 (7.0%)
Missing 54 (8.4%)
Total 645 (100%)
  1. CS caesarean section; VBAC vaginal birth after caesarean; APH antepartum haemorrhage