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Table 1 Characteristics of women with prolonged first stage of labour compared to no prolonged labour (total N = 3239)

From: Management of prolonged first stage of labour in a low-resource setting: lessons learnt from rural Malawi

  Prolonged 1st stage of labour (action line crossed) N = 178 Not prolonged
N = 3061
Age
  < 20 69 (38.8%) 747 (24.4%)
 20–24 58 (32.6%) 883 (28.8%)
 25–29 19 (10.7%) 575 (18.8%)
 30–34 20 (11.2%) 431 (14.1%)
  ≥ 35 12 (6.7%) 333 (10.9%)
 Unknown 0 92 (3.0%)
Gestational age
  < 32 0 (0.0%) 51 (1.7%)
 32–34 4 (2.2%) 80 (2.6%)
 35–36 34 (19.1%) 380 (12.4%)
 37–39 61 (34.3%) 1109 (36.2%)
  > 39 8 (4.5%) 117 (3.8%)
 Unknown 71 (39.9%) 1324 (43.3%)
Parity
 0 95 (53.4%) 1055 (34.5%)
 1 38 (21.3%) 659 (21.5%)
 2 17 (9.6%) 503 (16.4%)
 3 13 (7.3%) 374 (12.2%)
  ≥ 4 15 (8.4%) 453 (14.8%)
 Unknown 0 (0.0%) 17 (0.6%)
Previous CS
 0 159 (89.3%) 2824 (92.3%)
 1 19 (10.7%) 176 (5.7%)
  ≥ 2 0 (0.0%) 37 (1.2%)
 Unknown 0 (0.0%) 24 (0.8%)
Type of pregnancy
 Singleton 171 (96.1%) 2995 (97.8%)
 Twins 7 (3.9%) 66 (2.2%)
Birthweight
  < 1500 0 (0.0%) 29 (0.9%)
 1500–1999 4 (2.2%) 58 (1.9%)
 2000–2499 10 (5.6%) 321 (10.5%)
 2500–2999 52 (29.2%) 1081 (35.3%)
 3000–3499 67 (37.6%) 1191 (38.9%)
  ≥ 3500 37 (20.8%) 323 (10.6%)
 Unknown 8 (4.5%) 58 (1.9%)
Mode of birth
 SVD 35 (19.7%) 2624 (85.7%)
 AVD 1 (0.6%) 59 (1.9%)
 CS 142 (79.8%) 378 (12.3%)
Oxytocin
 Yes 21 (11.8%) 65 (2.1%)
 No 157 (88.2%) 2994 (97.8%)
 Unknown 0 (0.0%) 2 (0.1%)
Rupture of membranes
 Spontaneous 56 (31.5%) 2377 (77.6%)
 Artificial (amniotomy) 28 (15.7%) 385 (12.6%)
 On CS 13 (7.3%) 69 (2.3%)
 Unknown 81 (45.5%) 230 (7.5%)
  178 3061
  1. SVD spontaneous vaginal delivery; AVD assisted vaginal delivery; CS caesarean section