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Table 2 Results of multivariate logistic regression of effects of various covariates on maternal deaths, NFHS-4, 2015–16

From: Pro-poor policies and improvements in maternal health outcomes in India

   95% Confidence interval (CI)
Covariates Odds Ratio Lower Limit Upper Limit
Place of Residence
 Urban 1.00   
 Rural 1.04 0.83 1.30
Education level of HH head
 Higher 1.00   
 Illiterate 2.26*** 1.45 3.52
 Primary 1.78** 1.13 2.81
 Secondary 1.52 0.99 2.34
Region of residence
 Southern states 1.00   
 EAG states 1.79** 1.25 2.57
 North-east 1.50 0.94 2.42
 Rest of India (Western+ Northern + West Bengal) 1.05 0.70 1.58
Wealth Index
 Richest 1.00   
 Poorest 1.80** 1.26 2.59
 Poorer 1.37 0.97 1.96
 Middle 1.33 0.95 1.89
 Richer 1.17 0.83 1.66
HH any health Insurance coverage
 Yes 1.00   
 No 1.35** 1.10 1.66
Religion
 Hindu 1.00   
 Non-Hindu 1.19 0.97 1.47
Caste
 SC/ST 1.00   
 Others 0.84* 0.71 1.01
HH Size
 Less than 5 1.00   
 More than equal to 5 1.10 0.94 1.30
  1. *p < 0.10; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001