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Table 7 The bi-variable and multivariable mixed-effect logistic regression analysis of determinants of infant mortality among births from reproductive-age women in Ethiopia, 2016

From: Trends of infant mortality and its determinants in Ethiopia: mixed-effect binary logistic regression and multivariate decomposition analysis

Variables Infant status Crude Odds Ratio (COR) with 95% CI p-value Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) with 95% CI p-value
Alive Died
Residence
 Urban 1913 61 1   1  
 Rural 8187 480 1.85 [1.39, 2.48] 0.001 1.42 [0.98, 2.06] 0.19
Sex of household head
 Male 7944 439 1   1  
 Female 2156 102 0.85 [0.68, 1.07] 0.16 0.89 [0.70, 1.12] 0.68
Wealth status
 Poor 5441 334 1.42 [1.14, 1.75] 0.002 0.84 [0.65, 1.09] 0.58
 Middle 1399 67 1.12 [0.82, 1.51] 0.51 0.81 [0.58, 1.13] 0.19
 Rich 3260 140 1   1  
Parity
 1–3 6003 291 1   1  
 4–6 3457 193 1.14 [0.95, 1.39] 0.16 1.01 [0.79, 1.29] 0.93
 > 6 640 57 1.82 [1.34, 2.47] 0.0001 1.51 [1.01, 2.26]* 0.01
Maternal BMI (Kg/m2)
 < 18.5 2306 153 1.27 [1.04, 1.56] 0.001 1.22 [1.05, 1.50]* 0.03
 ≥25 1306 50 0.73 [0.54, 0.99] 0.05 0.78 [0.57, 1.08] 0.44
 18.5–24.9 6488 338 1   1  
Covered by health insurance
 Yes 316 5 1   1  
 No 9784 536 3.28 [1.33, 8.06] 0.01 2.49 [0.99, 6.18] 0.25
Sex of the child
 Male 5157 326 1.44 [1.21, 1.72] 0.001 1.50 [1.25, 1.79] ** 0.007
 Female 4943 215 1   1  
Type of birth
 Single 9875 488 1   1  
 Multiple 223 53 5.01 [3.60, 6.97] 0.0001 4.25 [3.01, 6.01] ** 0.0001
Place of delivery
 Health facility 3345 141 1   1  
 Home 6755 400 1.37 [1.11, 1.68] 0.03 0.78 [0.61, 1.05] 0.83
Maternal age (in years)
 < 20 379 25 1   1  
 20–29 5054 278 0.84 [0.55, 1.29] 0.21 0.63 [0.41, 0.99]* 0.02
 30–39 3864 193 0.76 [0.49, 1.18] 0.19 0.52 [0.32, 0.84]** 0.001
 ≥40 803 45 0.85 [0.51, 1.43] 0.2 0.51 [0.28, 0.93]* 0.02
Maternal education
 No 6460 378 1.57 [1.11, 2.22] 0.01 0.96 [0.64, 1.44] 0.73
 Primary 2554 124 1.33 [0.92, 1.94] 0.13 1.01 [0.67, 1.51] 0.61
 Secondary and higher 1086 39 1   1  
Number of ANC visit during pregnancy
 No 5506 423 3.50 [2.42, 5.07] 0.0001 3.14 [2.11, 4.66] * 0.001
 1–4 3146 86 1.23 [0.81, 1.86] 0.32 1.14 [0.75, 1.74] 0.65
 > 4 1452 32 1   1  
Preceding birth interval
 <  24 months 1943 175 1.97 [1.63, 2.38] 0.001 1.79 [1.46, 2.19]* 0.05
 ≥24 months 8157 366 1   1  
Size at birth
 Average 3051 163 1   1  
 Small 2811 197 1.64 [1.32, 2.02] 0.0001 1.55 [1.25, 1.92]** 0.003
 Large 4238 181 1.24 [0.99, 1.55] 0.015 1.26 [1.01, 1.57]** 0.006
  1. *ANC Antenatal Care Utilization, AOR Adjusted Odds Ratio, BMI Body Mass Index, CI Confidence Interval, COR Crude Odds Ratio, *p-value < 0.05, **p-value < 0.01