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Table 2 Trends in infant mortality rate among births from reproductive-age women in the last five years before the surveys by selected characteristics in Ethiopia in 2000, 2005, 2011, and 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys

From: Trends of infant mortality and its determinants in Ethiopia: mixed-effect binary logistic regression and multivariate decomposition analysis

Variables 2000 2005 2011 2016 Point difference in infant mortality rate over time
2005–2000 2011–2005 2016–2011 2016–2000
Place of residence
 Urban 96.4 71.7 53.5 42.2 −24.7 −18.2 −11.3 −54.2
 Rural 99.0 80.5 60.6 48.8 −18.5 −19.9 − 11.8 −50.2
Religion
 Orthodox 99.6 82.8 58.6 44.1 −16.8 −24.2 −14.5 −55.5
 Catholic 107.5 39.2 104.5 57.7 −68.3 65.3 −46.8 −48
 Protestant 82.7 73.5 60.4 43.8 −9.2 −13.1 −16.6 −38.9
 Muslim 105.7 83.4 58.9 53.7 −22.3 −24.5 −5.2 −52
 Others 97.0 50.9 65.9 38.9 −46.1 15 −27 −58.1
Age of women (in years)
 < 20 137.7 121.5 93.3 47.7 −16.2 −28.2 −45.6 −90
 20–29 101.5 82.1 57.9 45.4 −19..4 −24.2 −12.7 −56.1
 30–39 83.6 68.3 55.1 54.6 −15.3 −13.2 −0.5 −29
 ≥ 40 117.5 89.2 72.5 46.9 −28.3 −16.7 −25.6 −70.6
Maternal education
 No education 102.6 83.9 63.2 51.1 −18.7 −20.7 − 12.1 −51.5
 Primary 83.8 71.4 54.5 42.2 −12.4 −16.9 − 12.3 −41.6
 Secondary and higher 73.5 38.1 32.5 40.5 −35.4 −5.6 8 −33
Husband education
 No 104.6 88.4 55.3 51.1 −16.2 −33.1 −4.2 −53.5
 Primary 93.3 74.4 40.4 32.0 −18.9 −34 −8.4 −61.3
 Secondary and higher 78.8 51.7 64.8 48.1 −27.1 −13.1 − 16.7 −30.7
Sex of household head
 Male 98.4 78.9 60.5 48.9 −19.5 − 18.4 −11.6 −49.5
 Female 101.0 87.6 54.8 42.6 −13.4 −32.8 −12.2 −57.4
Maternal BMI (in Kg/m2)
 <  18.5 99.0 76.6 68.6 55.2 −22.4 −8 −13.4 −43.8
 18.5–24.9 97.7 77.7 56.7 46.4 −20 − 21 −10.3 −51.3
 ≥ 25 120.0 82.1 64.9 46.3 −37.9 −17.2 − 18.6 −73.7
Number of ANC visit during pregnancy
 No visit 66.4 57.8 40.6 47.7 −8.6 −17.2 7.1 −18.7
 1–4 visits 73.9 57.3 42.5 31.3 −16.6 −14.8 − 11.2 −42.6
 > 4 visits 33.7 34.4 35.4 20.5 0.7 1 −14.9 −13.2
Size at birth
 Small 92.2 91.8 57.1 56.8 −0.4 −34.7 − 0.3 −35.4
 Average 85.4 69.6 45.4 41.0 −15.8 −24.2 −4.4 −44.4
 Large 121.3 81.1 79.1 49.9 −40.2 −2.0 −29.2 −71.4
Place of delivery
 Home 98.1 78.2 58.8 49.8 −19.9 − 19.4 −9.0 −48.3
 Health facility 109.4 106.4 67.0 43.3 −3.0 −39.4 −23.7 −66.1
Mode of delivery
 Vaginal 98.9 79.8 59.5 47.4 −19.1 −20.3 −12.1 −51.5
 Caesarean section 77.9 93.0 74.6 82.8 15.1 −18.4 8.2 4.9
Type of birth
 Single 90.3 76.6 55.6 44.0 −13.7 −21.0 −11.6 −46.3
 Multiple 360.9 260.0 167.3 196.2 −100.9 −92.7 28.9 − 164.7
Sex of infant
 Male 104.8 92.2 69.6 59.9 −12.6 −22.6 −9.7 −44.9
 Female 92.3 66.9 49.0 35.2 −25.4 −17.9 − 13.8 −57.1
Ever had termination of pregnancy
 No 99.2 80.0 60.6 47.2 −19.2 − 19.4 − 13.4 −52.0
 Yes 95.7 79.2 52.1 57.1 −16.0 −27.1 −5.0 −38.6
Stunting
 Normal 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 moderately stunted 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 Severely stunted 158 97.5 260.4 204.0 −60.5 162.9 −56.4 46.0
Underweight
 Normal 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 Moderately underweight 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 Severely underweight 153 94.0 359.9 281.0 −69 265.9 −78.9 128
Wasting
 Normal 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 Moderately wasted 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 Severely wasted 109 83.0 581.5 376.7 −26 498.5 − 204.8 267.7
Media exposure
 No 102.1 80.6 59.1 42.9 −21.5 −21.5 −16.2 −60.2
 Yes 89.6 78.8 60.1 58.5 −10.8 − 18.7 − 1.6 −31.1
Preceding birth interval
 <  24 months 150.4 131.5 94.1 83.6 −18.9 −37.4 − 10.5 −66.8
 ≥ 24 months 88.9 66.9 52.9 40.4 −22.0 −14.0 −12.5 −48.5
Parity
 1–3 99.1 77.6 52.8 43.9 −21.5 −24.8 −8.9 −55.2
 4–6 87.5 72.7 64.2 48.3 −14.8 −8.5 −15.9 −39.4
 > 6 113.7 94.7 91.0 80.9 −19.0 −3.7 −10.2 −34.8