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Table 4 Estimated risks associated with informal coercion, postpartum depression, and satisfaction with childbirth

From: Informal coercion during childbirth: risk factors and prevalence estimates from a nationwide survey of women in Switzerland

 

Risk ratios

β estimate

Informal coercion

Postpartum depression

Satisfaction with childbirth

RR

95% CI

RR

95% CI

β

95% CI

MATERNAL SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS

Maternal age (years):

 18–23

Ref.

 

Ref.

 

Ref.

 

 24–27

1.06

[0.77,1.47]

1.25

[0.91,1.72]

1.47

[−1.29,4.22]

 28–31

1.03

[0.76,1.41]

1.10

[0.80,1.51]

1.71

[−0.90,4.32]

 32–35

0.88

[0.63,1.22]

1.03

[0.75,1.43]

0.30

[−2.35,2.95]

 36–39

0.91

[0.65,1.28]

0.97

[0.69,1.36]

1.06

[−1.71,3.82]

 40+

0.94

[0.64,1.39]

0.95

[0.64,1.43]

1.67

[−1.52,4.86]

Nationality:

 Swiss

Ref.

 

Ref.

 

Ref.

 

 Neighboring state

1.06

[0.91,1.25]

1.50

[1.29,1.74]

−0.99

[−2.24,0.26]

 Other

1.45

[1.26,1.66]

1.57

[1.36,1.82]

0.01

[−1.22,1.24]

Socioeconomic status (+  1 SD)

1.02

[0.96,1.09]

0.90

[0.85,0.96]

−0.02

[−0.52,0.49]

Urban (+  1 SD)

1.16

[1.09,1.23]

1.07

[1.00,1.14]

−0.24

[− 0.64,0.16]

MOTHERS’ PREFERENCE AND EXPECTATIONS

Preference for autonomous decision (+  1 SD)

1.15

[1.10,1.21]

1.02

[0.96,1.08]

0.37

[−0.08,0.82]

Preference for vaginal birth (+  1 SD)

1.15

[1.06,1.24]

1.02

[0.95,1.09]

−0.74

[−1.25,-0.23]

Birth preparation (+  1 SD)

1.06

[1.00,1.13]

0.98

[0.92,1.05]

0.16

[−0.31,0.63]

PREGNANCY CHARACTERISTICS

Parity:

 Nulliparous

Ref.

 

Ref.

 

Ref.

 

 Multiparous - no previous CS

0.94

[0.79,1.13]

0.90

[0.76,1.06]

1.35

[0.21,2.49]

 Multiparous - previous CS

1.00

[0.81,1.23]

0.92

[0.74,1.14]

1.50

[−0.04,3.05]

Multiple birth

1.68

[1.20,2.35]

0.87

[0.59,1.29]

1.27

[−2.03,4.56]

High-risk pregnancy

1.25

[1.10,1.41]

1.04

[0.92,1.19]

−1.76

[−2.73,-0.79]

Main caregiver:

 Physician

Ref.

 

Ref.

 

Ref.

 

 Midwife

1.11

[0.93,1.32]

0.88

[0.73,1.07]

−0.17

[−1.49,1.16]

 Both

0.95

[0.82,1.10]

0.82

[0.69,0.97]

0.99

[−0.08,2.06]

 Other

1.58

[0.77,3.27]

0.89

[0.37,2.11]

−6.12

[−13.55,1.3]

BIRTH SETTING

Knew at least one of the care providers

1.00

[0.88,1.14]

0.98

[0.86,1.12]

1.05

[0.09,2.00]

Place of birth:

 Public hospital

Ref.

 

Ref.

 

Ref.

 

 Private hospital

1.01

[0.86,1.19]

1.05

[0.89,1.24]

0.19

[−0.95,1.34]

 Birthing center

0.35

[0.21,0.59]

0.65

[0.46,0.93]

3.54

[1.96,5.13]

 At home

0.72

[0.44,1.20]

0.88

[0.56,1.37]

7.55

[5.84,9.27]

Unplanned place of birth

1.47

[1.25,1.73]

1.33

[1.11,1.60]

−3.25

[−5.19,-1.31]

BIRTH CHARACTERISTICS

Mode of birth:

 Non-instrumental vaginal birth

Ref.

 

Ref.

 

Ref.

 

 Forceps or vacuum birth

2.17

[1.85,2.55]

1.00

[0.84,1.20]

−6.94

[−8.41,-5.48]

 Planned cesarean section

1.52

[1.18,1.96]

1.00

[0.79,1.26]

−2.31

[−4.08,-0.54]

 Unplanned cesarean section

1.92

[1.61,2.28]

0.90

[0.72,1.13]

−9.35

[−11.14,-7.56]

 Emergency cesarean section

2.10

[1.71,2.58]

1.32

[1.08,1.62]

− 12.12

[− 14.28,-9.96]

Duration of birth (+  10 h)

1.07

[1.01,1.13]

1.02

[0.96,1.09]

−2.68

[−3.27,-2.09]

Child’s weight (+  1000 g)

1.10

[0.96,1.26]

1.02

[0.90,1.16]

0.23

[−0.74,1.20]

Child’s age (+  6 Mt.)

1.17

[1.06,1.29]

0.89

[0.81,0.99]

0.09

[−0.61,0.79]

EXPERIENCE OF INFORMAL COERCION

1.35

[1.19,1.54]

−7.52

[−8.63,-6.41]

  1. Risk ratios (RR) reflect the risk of informal coercion and postpartum depression. RRs were estimated using multivariable logistic regression and based on an imputed and weighted dataset. β coefficients reflect the change of a predictor in the total SIL score as estimated using multivariable linear regression and based on an imputed and weighted dataset. The 95% confidence intervals (CI) are shown in square brackets. All models are controlled for mother’s civil status, health insurance (general, semi−/private), gestational age, and recruitment channel (i.e., Facebook or other). Models for postpartum depression and satisfaction with childbirth are additionally controlled for neonatal intensive care unit transfer (not shown in table)