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Table 4 Estimated risks associated with informal coercion, postpartum depression, and satisfaction with childbirth

From: Informal coercion during childbirth: risk factors and prevalence estimates from a nationwide survey of women in Switzerland

  Risk ratios β estimate
Informal coercion Postpartum depression Satisfaction with childbirth
RR 95% CI RR 95% CI β 95% CI
MATERNAL SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS
Maternal age (years):
 18–23 Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
 24–27 1.06 [0.77,1.47] 1.25 [0.91,1.72] 1.47 [−1.29,4.22]
 28–31 1.03 [0.76,1.41] 1.10 [0.80,1.51] 1.71 [−0.90,4.32]
 32–35 0.88 [0.63,1.22] 1.03 [0.75,1.43] 0.30 [−2.35,2.95]
 36–39 0.91 [0.65,1.28] 0.97 [0.69,1.36] 1.06 [−1.71,3.82]
 40+ 0.94 [0.64,1.39] 0.95 [0.64,1.43] 1.67 [−1.52,4.86]
Nationality:
 Swiss Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
 Neighboring state 1.06 [0.91,1.25] 1.50 [1.29,1.74] −0.99 [−2.24,0.26]
 Other 1.45 [1.26,1.66] 1.57 [1.36,1.82] 0.01 [−1.22,1.24]
Socioeconomic status (+  1 SD) 1.02 [0.96,1.09] 0.90 [0.85,0.96] −0.02 [−0.52,0.49]
Urban (+  1 SD) 1.16 [1.09,1.23] 1.07 [1.00,1.14] −0.24 [− 0.64,0.16]
MOTHERS’ PREFERENCE AND EXPECTATIONS
Preference for autonomous decision (+  1 SD) 1.15 [1.10,1.21] 1.02 [0.96,1.08] 0.37 [−0.08,0.82]
Preference for vaginal birth (+  1 SD) 1.15 [1.06,1.24] 1.02 [0.95,1.09] −0.74 [−1.25,-0.23]
Birth preparation (+  1 SD) 1.06 [1.00,1.13] 0.98 [0.92,1.05] 0.16 [−0.31,0.63]
PREGNANCY CHARACTERISTICS
Parity:
 Nulliparous Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
 Multiparous - no previous CS 0.94 [0.79,1.13] 0.90 [0.76,1.06] 1.35 [0.21,2.49]
 Multiparous - previous CS 1.00 [0.81,1.23] 0.92 [0.74,1.14] 1.50 [−0.04,3.05]
Multiple birth 1.68 [1.20,2.35] 0.87 [0.59,1.29] 1.27 [−2.03,4.56]
High-risk pregnancy 1.25 [1.10,1.41] 1.04 [0.92,1.19] −1.76 [−2.73,-0.79]
Main caregiver:
 Physician Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
 Midwife 1.11 [0.93,1.32] 0.88 [0.73,1.07] −0.17 [−1.49,1.16]
 Both 0.95 [0.82,1.10] 0.82 [0.69,0.97] 0.99 [−0.08,2.06]
 Other 1.58 [0.77,3.27] 0.89 [0.37,2.11] −6.12 [−13.55,1.3]
BIRTH SETTING
Knew at least one of the care providers 1.00 [0.88,1.14] 0.98 [0.86,1.12] 1.05 [0.09,2.00]
Place of birth:
 Public hospital Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
 Private hospital 1.01 [0.86,1.19] 1.05 [0.89,1.24] 0.19 [−0.95,1.34]
 Birthing center 0.35 [0.21,0.59] 0.65 [0.46,0.93] 3.54 [1.96,5.13]
 At home 0.72 [0.44,1.20] 0.88 [0.56,1.37] 7.55 [5.84,9.27]
Unplanned place of birth 1.47 [1.25,1.73] 1.33 [1.11,1.60] −3.25 [−5.19,-1.31]
BIRTH CHARACTERISTICS
Mode of birth:
 Non-instrumental vaginal birth Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
 Forceps or vacuum birth 2.17 [1.85,2.55] 1.00 [0.84,1.20] −6.94 [−8.41,-5.48]
 Planned cesarean section 1.52 [1.18,1.96] 1.00 [0.79,1.26] −2.31 [−4.08,-0.54]
 Unplanned cesarean section 1.92 [1.61,2.28] 0.90 [0.72,1.13] −9.35 [−11.14,-7.56]
 Emergency cesarean section 2.10 [1.71,2.58] 1.32 [1.08,1.62] − 12.12 [− 14.28,-9.96]
Duration of birth (+  10 h) 1.07 [1.01,1.13] 1.02 [0.96,1.09] −2.68 [−3.27,-2.09]
Child’s weight (+  1000 g) 1.10 [0.96,1.26] 1.02 [0.90,1.16] 0.23 [−0.74,1.20]
Child’s age (+  6 Mt.) 1.17 [1.06,1.29] 0.89 [0.81,0.99] 0.09 [−0.61,0.79]
EXPERIENCE OF INFORMAL COERCION 1.35 [1.19,1.54] −7.52 [−8.63,-6.41]
  1. Risk ratios (RR) reflect the risk of informal coercion and postpartum depression. RRs were estimated using multivariable logistic regression and based on an imputed and weighted dataset. β coefficients reflect the change of a predictor in the total SIL score as estimated using multivariable linear regression and based on an imputed and weighted dataset. The 95% confidence intervals (CI) are shown in square brackets. All models are controlled for mother’s civil status, health insurance (general, semi−/private), gestational age, and recruitment channel (i.e., Facebook or other). Models for postpartum depression and satisfaction with childbirth are additionally controlled for neonatal intensive care unit transfer (not shown in table)