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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women

From: High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among normotensive and hypertensive pregnant women in Ghana

Variables Total (n = 180) NP (n = 92) PE (n = 88) p-value
Highest of Level Educational     0.660
 No education 16 (8.9) 7 (7.6) 9 (10.2)  
 Basic education 92 (51.1) 45 (48.9) 47 (53.4)  
 Secondary education 46 (25.6) 27 (29.3) 19 (21.6)  
 Tertiary education 26 (14.4) 13 (14.1) 13 (14.8)  
Ethnicity     0.116
 Ewe 133 (73.9) 64 (69.6) 69 (78.4)  
 Ga 23 (12.8) 11 (12.0) 12 (13.6)  
 Akan 24 (13.3) 17 (18.5) 7 (8.0)  
Marital Status     0.023
 Single 42 (23.3) 28 (30.4) 14 (84.1)  
 Married 138 (76.7) 64 (69.6) 74 (15.9)  
Occupation     0.313
 Unemployed 37 (20.6) 23 (25.0) 14 (15.9)  
 Self-employed 113 (62.8) 54 (58.7) 59 (67.0)  
 Civil servant 30 (16.7) 15 (16.3) 15 (17.0)  
Parity     0.903
 Nulliparous 62 (34.4) 33 (35.9) 29 (33.0)  
 Primiparous 49 (27.2) 25 (27.2) 24 (27.3)  
 Multiparous 69 (38.3) 34 (37.0) 35 (39.8)  
Gravidity     0.158
 Primigravida 58 (32.2) 33 (35.9) 25 (28.4)  
 Secundigravida 43 (23.9) 25 (27.2) 18 (20.5)  
 Multigravida 79 (43.9) 34 (37.0) 45 (51.1)  
Family History of Hypertension     0.076
 Yes 12 (6.7) 3 (3.3) 9 (10.2)  
 No 168 (93.3) 89 (96.7) 79 (89.8)  
History of Abortion     0.003
 Yes 31 (17.2) 8 (8.7) 23 (26.1)  
 No 149 (82.8) 84 (91.3) 65 (73.9)  
Contraceptive use     
 Yes 57 (31.7) 18 (19.6) 39 (44.3) < 0.0001
 No   74 (80.4) 49 (55.7)  
  1. Values are presented as frequency (proportion). Variables in PE were compared to NP using χ2 or Fischer’s exact test (when n < 5). Statistically significant level was given at p-value < 0.05
  2. PE Preeclamptic women, NP Normotensive pregnant control