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Table 4 Estimated size of the effect of placental perfusion insufficiency on the risk of unexplained stillbirth stratified by sex (%)a

From: Abnormal placental perfusion and the risk of stillbirth: a hospital-based retrospective cohort study

Sex Direct factor b Total effect The effect of PE The effect of placental perfusion insufficiency
   Coef. Standard Error P value Coef. Standard Error P value Coef. Standard Error P value Size of the total effect (%)
Male APP 1.45 0.54 0.008 0.08 0.09 0.42 1.37 0.56 0.015 94.5
PE 1.11 0.60 0.062 0.87 0.61 0.15 0.24 0.11 0.038 21.6
Combined 2.56       1.61    62.9
Female APP 1.83 0.54 0.001 0.15 0.10 0.12 1.68 0.59 0.004 91.8
PE 1.60 0.52 0.002 1.28 0.55 0.02 0.31 0.12 0.008 19.4
Combined 3.43       1.99    58.0
Total APP 1.68 0.36 < 0.001 0.12 0.07 0.10 1.56 0.37 < 0.001 92.9
PE 1.44 0.43 0.001 1.16 0.44 0.009 0.28 0.07 < 0.001 19.4
Combined 3.12       1.84    59.0
  1. a Adjusted for maternal age at delivery (< 25, 25–34, or ≥ 35), residence (local or nonlocal), parity (nulliparous or pluriparous), gestational diabetes mellitus (yes or no), assisted conception (yes or no), preeclampsia (yes or no) and sex (male or female) in total. Sex was not included in the models of the stratification analyses
  2. b Direct factor refers to the factor associated with the risk of disease; indirect factor refers to the factor that may be involved in the aetiological chain of the direct factor and the occurrence of disease and that plays a role in the risk of disease