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Table 2 The descriptives statistics of MFA and PPD, and the comparisons between the pregnant smokers and the non-smokers

From: Correction to: The association of maternal-fetal attachment with smoking and smoking cessation during pregnancy in The FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study

  Non-smokers Smokers Between-groups difference
  N = 3086 N = 612
  n Mean (SD) Median (range) n Mean (SD) Median (range) pa r
24gwks
 MFAS 2331 86.9 (10.6) 87 (51–116) 409 88.0 (10.0) 88 (44–113) 0.074 0.03
  Role taking 2336 16.7 (2.8) 17 (6–20) 410 16.8 (2.7) 17 (7–20) 0.703 0.01
  Differentiation 2340 15.4 (2.5) 15 (6–20) 410 15.7 (2.4) 16 (7–20) 0.032* 0.04
  Interacting 2338 16.6 (3.1) 17 (5–25) 410 17.1 (3.0) 17 (8–24) 0.004** 0.05
  Attributing 2335 18.5 (3.4) 19 (6–30) 409 19.0 (3.2) 19 (11–29) 0.006** 0.05
  Giving 2338 19.7 (2.5) 20 (9–25) 410 19.5 (2.5) 20 (8–25) 0.091 0.03
 EPDS 2317 4.8 (4.1) 4 (0–25) 408 6.0 (4.3) 5 (0–23) < 0.001** 0.11
 SCL-90 Anxiety 2314 3.8 (4.2) 3 (0–30) 408 4.7 (4.6) 4 (0–24) < 0.001** 0.08
34gwks
 MFAS 2188 92.0 (10.2) 93 (52–116) 373 93.1 (10.2) 93 (55–117) 0.137 0.03
  Role taking 2202 17.1 (2.6) 18 (7–20) 374 17.1 (2.5) 18 (8–20) 0.886 0.00
  Differentiation 2204 15.9 (2.4) 16 (8–20) 374 16.2 (2.2) 16 (10–20) 0.111 0.03
  Interacting 2202 18.1 (3.1) 18 (5–25) 374 18.5 (2.8) 19 (10–25) 0.037* 0.04
  Attributing 2198 21.1 (3.4) 22 (9–30) 373 21.8 (3.4) 22 (12–30) 0.001** 0.07
  Giving 2198 19.8 (2.4) 20 (10–25) 374 19.6 (2.5) 20 (10–25) 0.171 0.03
 EPDS 2191 4.7 (4.0) 4 (0–26) 373 5.9 (4.5) 5 (0–23) < 0.001** 0.10
 SCL-90 Anxiety 2186 3.1 (3.8) 2 (0–27) 374 3.8 (4.6) 3 (0–33) 0.012* 0.05
   n/N %   n/N % Χ2 p Cramer’s ϕ
24 gwks EPDS≥10   299/2317 12.9%   73/408 17.9% 0.007** 0.05
34 gwks EPDS≥10   287/2191 13.1%   84/373 22.5% < 0.001** 0.09
  1. The estimates are based on the original data, not the imputed dataset
  2. Attrition in the MFAS questionnaire responses was higher among the smoking women in comparison with the non-smokers (24 gwks: 33.2% vs. 24.5%, χ2 = 20.2, p < 0.001; 34 gwks: 39.1% vs. 29.1%, χ2 = 23.8, p < 0.001, respectively)
  3. MFAS Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale and the subscales of Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale: Role taking, Differentiation, Differentiation of self from fetus, Interacting, Interacting with the fetus, Attributing, Attributing characteristics to the fetus and Giving Giving of self, EPDS Edinburgh (Pre) Postnatal Depression Scale, SCL-90 Anxiety Symptom Checklist − 90, the Anxiety Subscale
  4. * p-value <.05, **p-value <.01
  5. a Mann-Whitney U test