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Table 2 Maternal and fetal/infant adverse events of in mothers with and without liver cirrhosis(n = 291)

From: Maternal and fetal outcomes of patients with liver cirrhosis: a case-control study

  Group A Group C t/χ2, P-value
Maternal Complications, n (%) (n = 97) (n = 194)  
First trimester n = 97 n = 194  
 Ectopic pregnancy 3 (3.1) 0 (0) χ2# = 3.41, P = 0.065
 Induced abortion 1 (1) 0 (0) P** = 0.33
 Missed abortion 4 (4.1) 6 (3.1) χ2# = 0.013, P = 0.91
 Subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy 7 (7.2) 6 (3.1) χ2# = 1.71, P = 0.19
Second trimester n = 89 n = 188  
 Spontaneous abortion 2 (2.2) 0 (0) P** = 0.10
 Pregnancy-induced hypertension 8 (8.2) 5 (2.7) χ2# = 3.39, P = 0.065
Third trimester n = 87 n = 188  
 Gestational diabetes mellitus 18 (20.7) 27 (14.4) χ2 = 1.74, P = 0.19
 Intrauterine fetal death 3 (3.4) 0 (0) P** = 0.031
 Oligohydramnios 1 (1.1) 12 (6.4) χ2 = 3.62, P = 0.057
 Placenta Previa 1 + 3 (4.6) 2 (1.1) χ2# = 2.02, P = 0.16
 Placenta abruption 1 (1.1) 1 (0.5) P** = 0.55
 Cesarean section 64 (73.6) 93 (49.5) χ2 = 14.10, P = 1.7*10−5
Postpartum n = 87 n = 188  
 Postpartum Hemorrhage 12 (13.8) 4 (2.1) χ2 = 14.77, P = 1.2*10−4
 Intensive care unit admission 21 (24.1) 2 (1.1) χ2 = 41.32, P = 1.3*10−10
 Intrauterine balloon pressure 15 (17.2) 7 (3.7) χ2 = 14.77, P = 1.2*10−4
 Hysterectomy 1 (1) 0 (0) P** = 0.33
 Poor wound healing 3 (3.4) 1 (0.5) χ2# = 1.79, p = 0.18
Complication due to liver-related events n = 97 n = 194  
 Bleeding Gums 7 (7.2) 2 (1.0) χ2# = 6.32, p = 0.012
 Infection 10 (10.3) 1 (0.5) χ2 = 14.47, p = 1.4*10−4
MODS 7 (7.2) 1 (0.5) χ2# = 8.50, p = 4.0*10−3
 Right heart failure 1 (1.0) 0 (0) p** = 0.33
 Respiratory failure 1 (1.0) 0 (0) p** = 0.33
 Acute liver failure 2 (2.1) 0 (0) p** = 0.11
 Renal insufficiency 3 (3.1) 1 (0.5) χ2# = 1.55, p = 0.21
Subarachnoid hemorrhage 1 (1.0) 0 (0) p** = 0.33
Coagulation disorders 2 (2.1) 1 (0.5) χ2# = 0.38, p = 0.54
New ascites or aggravating ascites 6 (6.2) 0 (0) χ2# = 9.38, p = 2.0*10−3
Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage 2 (2.1) 0 (0) p** = 0.11
TBA elevation 18 (18.6) 6 (3.1) χ2 = 20.43, p = 6.0*10−6
ALT elevation
 Mild 16 (16.5) 4 (2.1) Z = 6.898, p = 5.3*10−12
 Moderate 13 (13.4) 2 (1.0)
 Severe 2 (2.1) 0 (0)
Blood Transfusion 28 (28.9) 4 (2.1) χ2 = 47.47, p = 5.6*10−12
Severe adverse events 31 (32.0) 3 (1.5) χ2# = 57.964, p = 2.7*10−14
Fetal/newborn complications, n (%) (n = 88) (n = 189) t/χ2, P-value
Gestational weeks of delivery (mean ± SD, weeks) 37.62 ± 2.63 39.07 ± 1.53 t = 4.75, p = 6.0*10−6
 Fetal development restriction 1 (1.1) 2 (1.1) χ2# = 0, p = 1
 Low birth weight infant 12 (13.6) 5 (2.6) χ2 = 12.59, p = 3.9*10−4
 Fetal macrosomia 8 (9.1) 10 (5.3) χ2 = 1.43, p = 0.23
 Fetal distress 4 (4.5) 4 (2.1) χ2# = 0.55, p = 0.46
 Preterm delivery 27 (30.7) 8 (4.2) χ2 = 38.05, p = 6.9*10−10
 Asphyxia of newborn 9 (10.2) 2 (1.1) χ2 = 10.94, p = 9.4*10−4
 Apgar score 4–7 at 1 min 4 1  
 Apgar score 0–3 at 1 min 5 1  
 Neonatal ICU admission 8 (9.1) 3 (1.6) χ2# = 7.01, p = 8.0*10−3
 Fetal/newborn death 4 (4.5) 0 (0) χ2 = 5.82, p = 0.016
  1. ALT Alanine aminotransferase; TBA Total bile acid; MODS Multiple organ dysfunction; ICU Intensive care unit. #continuous correction; ** Fisher’s test