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Table 3 Characteristics of the study population overall, and stratified for risk for and diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus

From: Implementation of a first-trimester prognostic model to improve screening for gestational diabetes mellitus

Characteristics Low risk (n = 721) High risk (n = 352) Overall (n = 1073)
no GDM (n = 711) GDM (n = 10) no GDM (n = 281) GDM (n = 71)
Age (years) 31.0 (4.2) 30.1 (3.0) 32.3 (4.4) 32.2 (4.7) 31.4 (4.3)
Body mass index (kg/m2) 22.5 (20.6–24.3) 23.6 (22.0–24.8) 27.8 (25.0–31.2) 30.1 (27.8–33.3) 23.7 (21.4–27.3)
Ethnicity (Caucasian) 641 (90.2) 9 (90.0) 203 (72.5) 51 (71.8) 904 (84.2)
Parity (nulliparous) 318 (44.7) 5 (50.0) 93 (33.1) 24 (33.8) 440 (41.0)
Spontaneous conception 668 (94.0) 10 (100) 256 (91.1) 69 (97.2) 1003 (93.5)
Pre-existent hypertension 4 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 12 (4.3) 2 (2.9) 18 (1.7)
Polycystic ovarian syndrome 14 (2.0) 0 (0.0) 6 (2.1) 5 (7.0) 24 (2.2)
History of gestational diabetes mellitus 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 14 (5.0) 17 (23.9) 31 (2.9)
History of macrosomiaa 19 (2.7) 1 (10.0) 12 (4.3) 7 (9.9) 39 (3.6)
History of unexplained intra-uterine fetal demise 1 (0.1) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.4) 2 (2.8) 4 (0.4)
Family history of diabetesb 39 (5.5) 1 (10.0) 124 (44.1) 27 (38.0) 190 (17.7)
First trimester glucose (mmol/L) 4.6 (4.3–4.9) 4.5 (4.1–4.8) 5.0 (4.7–5.4) 5.3 (4.9–5.6) 4.7 (4.4–5.1)
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy 73 (10.3) 2 (20.0) 43 (15.3) 16 (22.5) 134 (12.5)
Induction of birth 139 (19.5) 5 (50.0) 75 (26.7) 37 (52.1) 256 (23.9)
Mode of birth (spontaneous) 573 (80.6) 3 (30.0) 217 (77.2) 47 (66.2) 840 (84.4)
Postpartum hemorrhage > 1000 ml 60 (8.4) 0 (0.0) 19 (6.8) 8 (11.3) 87 (8.1)
Maternal death 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Gestational age at birth (days) 281 (274–286) 276 (270–279) 280 (272–287) 273 (266–281) 280 (273–286)
Birthweight (grams) 3500 (3140–3810) 4008 (3712–4357) 3507 (3155–3850) 3480 (3088–3958) 3500 (3140–3840)
 Small-for-gestational-agec 83 (11.7) 0 (0.0) 35 (12.5) 6 (8.5) 124 (11.6)
 Large-for-gestational-agea 55 (7.8) 6 (60.0) 39 (13.9) 15 (21.1) 118 (11.0)
Apgar-score < 7 after 5 min 11 (1.6) 1 (10.0) 6 (2.2) 1 (1.4) 19 (1.8)
Shoulder dystocia 18 (2.5) 1 (10.0) 10 (3.6) 1 (1.4) 30 (2.8)
Birth trauma 5 (0.7) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.4) 6 (0.6)
Hypoglycemia < 2.6 mmol/L 56 (7.9) 3 (30.0) 28 (10.0) 20 (28.2) 107 (10.0)
Neonatal intensive care admission 20 (2.8) 0 (0.0) 9 (3.2) 2 (2.8) 31 (2.9)
Perinatal death > 22 weeks gestational age 3 (0.4) 0 (0.0) 3 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 6 (0.6)
  1. Values are mean (SD), median (interquartile range) or number (percentage)
  2. GDM Gestational diabetes mellitus, Low risk Low risk for GDM, High risk High risk for GDM. Predictors in prognostic model: age, body mass index, ethnicity, first trimester glucose level, family history of diabetes, GDM in a previous pregnancy
  3. aBirthweight percentile > 90 [24]
  4. bFirst degree family member with any type of diabetes mellitus
  5. cBirthweight percentile < 10 [24]