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Table 1 Bivariate analysis of selected characteristics with herbal medicine use during pregnancy or delivery in Tabora, Tanzania

From: Understanding forgotten exposures towards achieving Sustainable Development Goal 3: a cross‐sectional study on herbal medicine use during pregnancy or delivery in Tanzania

Characteristic Total Herbal use
Number (%)
Chi-square, p-value*
Age group (years)    1.62, 0.431
 16-25 83 46 (55.4)  
 26-35 142 88 (62.0)  
 36+ 115 74 (64.3)  
Marital status    0.67, 0.717
 Never in union 25 14 (56.0)  
 Currently in union 285 174 (61.1)  
 Previously in union 30 20 (66.7)  
Education level    2.86, 0.239
 None/prim incomplete 87 50 (57.5)  
 Primary complete 175 104 (59.4)  
 Secondary and above 78 54 (69.2)  
Occupation of mother    3.63, 0.163
 Peasant/housewife 177 108 (61.0)  
 Self-employed 127 73 (57.5)  
 Formerly employed 36 27 (75.0)  
Occupation of spousea    4.59, 0.101
 Peasant 159 103 (64.8)  
 Self employed 91 59 (64.8)  
 Formerly employed 78 40 (51.3)  
Distance to nearest facility (km)    5.35, 0.021
 > 5 85 61 (71.8)  
 ≤ 5 255 147 (57.6)  
No. of ANC visits    6.47, 0.011
 < 4 visits 199 133 (68.8)  
 ≥ 4 visits 141 75 (53.2)  
Perceived availability of HMs    1.51, 0.219
 Easily available 57 39 (68.4)  
 Not easily available 283 169 (59.7)  
Perceived safety of HMs    11.74, <0.01
 Safe 83 64 (77.1)  
 Not safe 257 144 (56.0)  
Health care provider’s stance towards use of HMs    13.15, < 0.01
 Did not discourage 131 96 (73.3)  
 Discouraged use 209 112 (53.6)  
  1. *Pearson’s chi-square
  2. a 12 missing values