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Table 5 Birth plan presentation according to the use of pain relief methods

From: Birth plan presentation to hospitals and its relation to obstetric outcomes and selected pain relief methods during childbirth

   Birth plan presented  
Pain relief method Total
n (%)
Yes
n (%)
No
n (%)
p
N = 422 (%) n = 216 (51.2) n = 206 (48.8)  
Pharmacological
 Yes 386 (91.2) 195 (90.3) 191 (92.7) 0.370a
 No 36 (8.8) 21 (9.7) 15 (7.3)  
Epidural analgesia
 Yes 375 (88.9) 186 (86.1) 189 (91.7) 0.066a
 No 47 (11.1) 30 (13.9) 17 (8.3)  
Local anaesthesia
 Yes 14 (3.3) 11 (5) * 3 (1.5) 0.037b
 No 408 (96.7) 205 (95) 203 (98.5)  
Nitrous oxide
 Yes 2 (0.5) 2 (0.9) 0 (0) 0.166b
 No 420 (99.5) 214 (99.1) 206 (100)  
General anaesthesia
 Yes 4 (1) 3 (1.4) 1 (0.5) 0.338b
 No 418 (99) 213 (98.6) 205 (99.5)  
Non-pharmacological
 Yes 189 (44.8) 109 (50.5) * 80 (38.8) 0.012a
 No 233 (55.2) 107 (49.5) 126 (61.2)  
Relaxation techniques
 Yes 73 (17.3) 47 (21.7) * 26 (12.6) 0.013a
 No 349 (82.7) 169 (78.3) 180 (87.4)  
Breathing techniques
 Yes 146 (34.6) 88 (40.7) * 58 (28.2) 0.007a
 No 276 (65.4) 128 (59.3) 148 (71.8)  
Massage
 Yes 59 (14) 35 (16.2) 24 (11.7) 0.178a
 No 363 (86) 181 (83.8) 182 (88.3)  
Use of water
 Yes 44 (10.4) 29 (13.4) * 15 (7.3) 0.039a
 No 378 (89.6) 187 (86.6) 191 (92.7)  
Use of local heat
 Yes 49 (11.6) 34 (15.7) * 15 (7.3) 0.007a
 No 373 (88.4) 182 (84.3) 191 (92.7)  
Use of a birthing ball
 Yes 32 (7.6) 19 (8.8) 13 (6.3) 0.335a
 No 390 (92.4) 197 (91.2) 193 (93.7)  
Other methods#
 Yes 8 (1.9) 5 (2.3) 3 (1.5) 0.518b
 No 414 (98.1) 211 (97.7) 203 (98.5)  
Pharmacological + non-pharmacological
 Yes 152 (36) 87 (40.3) 65 (31.5) 0.062a
 No 270 (64) 129 (59.7) 141 (68.5)  
  1. Data are expressed as n (%); achi-squared test; bFisher’s test; p = p value; *p < 0.05; #other methods include acupuncture, aromatherapy, homeopathy, and Bach flowers