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Table 4 Estimates from TMLE showing the association of antenatal and postnatal depression with risk of Diarrhea, ARI, and Malnutrition in Gondar Town (N = 866), Ethiopia, 2018

From: Effect of perinatal depression on risk of adverse infant health outcomes in mother-infant dyads in Gondar town: a causal analysis

  GEE model TMLE
  Unadjusted
IRR (95%CI)
Adjusted
IRR (95% CI)
Adjusted p-value djusted Risk Difference (95% CI)
Diarrhea
 Antenatal depression
  No 1.00 1.00   
  Yes 0.65(0.29,1.45) 0.57(0.24,1.31) 0.185 0.8% (−9.2, 10.9)
 Postnatal depression
  No 1.00 1.00   
  Yes 0.85(0.46,1.60) 0.92(0.45,1.78) 0.811 -2.4% (−9.6, 4.9)
Adjusted for history of CMD, low birth weight, husband support, social support, stress coping ability, pregnancy condition, food access of the family, and maternal health care services.
Acute Respiratory Infection
 Antenatal depression
  No 1.00 1.00   
  Yes 0.85 (0.45,1.60) 0.92 (0.47,1.78) 0.798 −1.3% (−21.0, 18.5)
 Postnatal depression
  No 1.00 1.00   
  Yes 1.10(0.66,1.81) 1.00(0.58,1.72) 0.994 −3.2% (−12.4, 5.9)
Adjusted for age of the mother, age of the infant, maternal service uptake, fear to give birth, marital situation, husband support, social support, pregnancy need, food access, and occupation.
Malnutrition
 Antenatal depression
  No 1.00 1.00   
  Yes 0.47(0.16,1.40) 0.61(0.19,1.97) 0.407 −7.3% (−22.0, 21.8)
 Postnatal depression
  No 1.00 1.00   
  Yes 1.48(0.83,2.64) 1.43(0.71,2.89) 0.314 0.9% (−7.6, 9.5)
Adjusted for maternal services, parity, income, food access, occupation, educational status, marital situation, marital status, partner support, social support, history of common mental disorder, pregnancy condition, and nutritional status of the mother.