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Table 2 Characteristics of maternal and infant participants to those with and without Diarrhea, Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI), and Malnutrition in Gondar Town, Ethiopia, (n = 866)

From: Effect of perinatal depression on risk of adverse infant health outcomes in mother-infant dyads in Gondar town: a causal analysis

Variable/category Diarrhea (Yes, n = 147) p-value (ARI) (Yes, n = 187) p-value Malnutrition (Yes, n = 125) p-value
Yes, n (%) No, n (%)   Yes, n (%) No, n (%)   Yes, n (%) No, n (%)  
Pregnancy intention    0.562    0.397    0.688
 Planned 123 (83.7) 615(85.5)   163 (87.2) 575(84.7)   108 (86.4) 630(85.0)  
 Unplanned 24 (16.3) 104(14.5)   24 (12.8) 104(15.3)   17 (13.6) 111(15.0)  
Parity of the mother    0.793    0.675    0.432
 1 53 (36.0) 280(38.9)   77 (41.2)    43 (34.4) 290(39.1)  
 2 47 (32.0) 224(31.2)   55 (29.4)    45 (36.0) 226(30.5)  
 3–8 47 (32.0) 215(29.9)   55 (29.4)    37 (29.6) 225(30.4)  
Antenatal care service uptake (at least one) 0.142    0.014    0.871
 Yes 144 (98.0) 685(95.3)   185 (98.9) 644(94.8)   120 (96.0) 709(95.7)  
 No 3 (2.0) 34(4.7)   2 (1.1) 35(5.2)   5 (4.0) 32(4.3)  
Postnatal care service    0.562    0.016    0.000
 Yes 110 (74.8) 554(77.0)   131 (70.1) 533(78.5)   76 (60.8) 588(79.3)  
 No 37 (25.2) 165(23.0)   56 (29.9) 146(21.5)   49 (39.2) 153(20.6)  
Low birth weight    0.016    0.000    0.452
 Yes 9 (6.1) 20(2.4)   14 (7.0) 15(1.9)   5 (4.1) 22(2.8)  
 No 138 (93.9) 699(97.6)   173 (93.0) 664(98.1)   120 (95.9) 719(97.2)  
Preterm birth    0.770    0.311    0.432
 Yes 23 (15.7) 108(14.7)   33 (17.2) 97(14.2)   21 (17.2) 107(14.5)  
 No 124 (84.3) 611(85.3)   154 (82.8) 582(85.8)   104 (82.8) 634(85.5)  
Exposure to coffee in pregnancy 0.429    0.065    0.075
 Daily 64 (43.5) 293(40.7)   89 (47.6) 268(39.5)   58 (46.4) 299(40.4)  
 Sometimes 44 (30.0) 255(35.5)   52 (27.8) 247(36.4)   32 (25.6) 267(36.0)  
 Never 39 (26.5) 171(23.8)   46 (24.6) 164(24.1)   35 (28.0) 175(23.6)  
Exposure to cigarette in pregnancy 0.906    0.331    0.528
 Yes 12(8.2) 78(10.8)   19(10.2) 71(10.5)   11(8.8) 79(10.7)  
 No 135(91.8) 641(89.2)   168(89.8) 608(89.5)   114(91.2) 662(89.3)  
Nutritional status of the mother   0.193    0.109    0.186
 Normal 131 (89.1) 664(92.3)   177 (94.6) 618(91.0)   111 (88.8) 684(92.3)  
 Underweight 16 (10.9) 55(7.6)   10 (5.4) 61(9.0)   14 (11.2) 57(7.7)  
Early initiation of breast feeding   0.214    0.000    0.000
 Yes 97 (66.0) 435(60.5)   152 (81.7) 380(55.8)   112 (89.3) 422(56.8)  
 No 50 (34.0) 284(39.5)   35 (18.3) 299(44.2)   13 (10.7) 319(43.2)  
Care given for infant by    0.004    0.986    0.023
 Mothers 136 (92.5) 701(97.5)   182 (97.3) 655(96.5)   125 (100.0) 712(96.1)  
 Housekeeper 11 (7.5) 18(2.5)   5 (2.7) 24(3.5)   0 (0.0) 29(3.9)  
Maternal perception of infant response to breast feeding 0.110    0.279    0.000
 Strongly agree 87 (59.2) 490(68.1)   132 (70.6) 445(65.5)   74 (59.2) 503(67.9)  
 Agree 56 (38.1) 214(29.8)   53 (28.3) 217(32.0)   42 (33.6) 228(30.8)  
 Not satisfied 4 (2.7) 15(2.1)   2 (1.1) 17(2.5)   9 (7.2) 10(1.3)  
  1. Note: p-value was based on chi-square test statistics