Skip to main content

Table 2 Strength of evidence analysis

From: Health outcomes of smoking during pregnancy and the postpartum period: an umbrella review

Groups Health conditions
Strong evidence (group 1) Miscarriage, hyperemesis gravidarum, LRI, neonatal death, and preterm birth, reduced live birth in assisted reproduction
Strong evidence (group 2) Abruptio placenta, ectopic pregnancy, placenta previa, pre-eclampsia,birth defects (except skin defect), asthma, LBW, overweight, obesity, SIDS, stillbirth.
Weak evidence (group 3) Leukaemia, lymphoma, vision difficulties
Weak evidence (group 4) Cognitive parameters of children and young adults, disruptive behaviour disorders, intellectual disability, neuroblastoma, preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM), reduced menarche age, sleep apnea, skin defects, Tourette’s syndrome.