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Table 1 Health impacts of maternal SDP on infants by life stages

From: Health outcomes of smoking during pregnancy and the postpartum period: an umbrella review

Life Stage Health outcomes
Perinatal Foetal loss in assisted reproduction, stillbirth, perinatal death, preterm birth [4, 38, 45, 46]
Neonatal Accelerated growth, birth defects (i.e. heart defects, oral clefts), LBW, neonatal death, neural tube defects, sleep apnoea [3, 23, 24, 39, 44, 46,47,48,49,50,51]
Infancy Asthma, cognitive parameters impairment (decreased IQ, impaired neurodevelopment), intellectual disability, lower respiratory illness (LRI), SIDS, wheezing [1, 37, 42, 52,53,54]
Childhood ADHD, accelerated growth, asthma, central nervous system tumours, cognitive parameters impairment (decreased IQ), disruptive behaviour disorders, intellectual disability, neuroblastoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, overweight, obesity, vision difficulties, wheezing [1, 23, 27, 43, 52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60]
Adolescence Asthma, Central nervous system tumours, cognitive impairment (decreased IQ, poor school performance), neuroblastoma, overweight, obesity, reduced menarche age in daughters, wheezing [1, 43, 53, 54, 57, 61]
Adulthood Central nervous system tumours, cognitive parameters impairment (decreased IQ), overweight, obesity [44, 54, 56, 58]