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Table 2 The specific characteristics of the include studies

From: Virtual reality applications to assist pregnant women: a scoping review

First author’s name

VR components

Data gathering method

Study outcome

Sridhar, et al. [19]

Hardware: Smartphone, VR headset, headphones

Software: 3D environment (dream beach, Iceland, dolphins)

Pre-procedural anxiety using a modified Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) and a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for anxiety. The semi-structured interviews to assess each participant’s experience with the VR after the procedure

VR was an effective method to reduce anxiety during and after surgery.

Wong, et al. [20]

Hardware: VR google headset

Software: VR blossoming tree, ocean waves, and crackling campfire accompanied by meditative auditory guidance specific to pregnancy and laboring women scenario

Visual Analog Scale (VAS), pre intervention survey, Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) global health survey, childbirth

self-efficacy index (CSEI)

VR was an effective tool for reducing labor pain.

Mosso, et al. [21]

Hardware: VR HMD, controller joystick, laptop,

Software: virtual scenarios (Enchanted Forest, Cliff, and Castle)

Visual Analog Scale (VAS)

The use of VR in cesarean reduced the pain and anxiety of childbirth and was a powerful and safe tool.

Noben, et al. [14]

Hadware: VR glasses, Smartphone, tablet

Software: Infor-Med app. The 360° VR video about all aspects of cesarean delivery

Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety (VAS-A), The Simulation Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ), Childbirth Perception Scale, Pregnancy and Childbirth Questionnaire, Tilburg Pregnancy Distress Scale

VR was not effective in reducing anxiety before cesarean.

Setiawan, et al. [22]

Hardware: Smartphone (Xiaomi Redmi Note 4), VR Shinecon headset, Samsung Gear 2 wearable device.

Software: Unity, Google VR, Tizen

Immersive Virtual Environment (IVE) questionnaire

VR was a useful teaching exercise tool and measure vital signs with wearable equipment.

Frey, et al. [13]

Hardware: Samsung Gear VR HMD, Galaxy S7phone, hand control, head tracking, headphones, S5 phone.

Software: scene of curious manatees from (, relaxing music from (

Numeric Rating Scale (NRS)

Using the VR approach to gain experience in reducing labor pain and anxiety was useful.

Jahani, et al. [23]

Hardware: Glasses (Wrap 920), headphones, stereo sound system with frequency of 60 Hz; resolution 280 × 640 pixels, DVD player/ 3D Blue- Ray Player

Software: IMAX Dolphin and Whales 1080p Half-SBS AC3

Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)

VR was a safe and useful non-pharmacological treatment method to reduce episiotomy anxiety and fear of natural childbirth.

Jahani, et al. [24]

Hardware: Video player (3D Blu- Ray/ DVD player full HD, model BD660, Indonesia), Video glasses (Wrap920 system, Vuzix factory, US), connection cable, external headphones (stereo 60 Hz, 310 field view), external remote control device,

Software: 3D film (IMAX Dolphin and Whales 3D 1080p)

Numeric Rating Scale (NRS)

The use of VR was considered a useful tool to reduce pain during episiotomy repair.

Severi, et al. [25]

Hardware: Fetouch system, haptic device (phantom, Delta), personal computer, stereo glasses.

Software: US3D Touch software

State Trait Anxiety Inventory-Form Y (STAI) test

Virtual models reduced the stress of pregnant mothers and lead to better communication between mother and fetus.