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Table 2 Rates of complications among 46,088 women who had a spontaneous vaginal delivery in 2015–16

From: Waterbirth: a national retrospective cohort study of factors associated with its use among women in England

  Number of women experiencing outcome (%) Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusteda OR
(95% CI)
p value
  among all women
(n = 46,088)
among women recorded as not having waterbirth
(n = 39,824)
among women recorded as having waterbirth
(n = 6284)
  Maternal
 Obstetric anal sphincter injury 1480 (3.21%) 1259
(3.16%)
221
(3.53%)
1.12
(0.97, 1.30)
1.00 (0.86,1.16) 0.99
 Postpartum haemorrhage > = 1500 ml 552 (1.20%) 496
(1.25%)
56
(0.89%)
0.72 (0.54,0.94) 0.68 (0.51,0.90) 0.007
  Neonatal
 Apgar< 7 at 5 min of age 270 (0.59%) 234
(0.59%)
36
(0.57%)
0.98 (0.69,1.39) 0.95 (0.66,1.36) 0.78
 Neonatal admissionb 1287 (3.09%) 1168
(3.25%)
119
(2.11%)
0.64 (0.53,0.78) 0.65 (0.53,0.78) < 0.001
  1. aadjusted for factors described in Table 1
  2. b in a restricted cohort of 41,596 women for whom information about neonatal admission was available