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Table 1 Rate of waterbirth according to maternal and obstetric risk factors

From: Waterbirth: a national retrospective cohort study of factors associated with its use among women in England

Characteristic Number of women in group Number of women who give birth in water Rate of birth in water (%) Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI) p (Wald test)
All women 46,088 6264 13.6    
  Age
 18–24 9569 993 10.4 0.78 (0.72,0.85) 0.76 (0.70,0.82) < 0.001
 25–29 13,810 1783 12.9 Ref Ref  
 30–34 14,359 2281 15.9 1.27 (1.19,1.36) 1.17 (1.09,1.25)  
 35–39 7142 1103 15.4 1.23 (1.14,1.34) 1.12 (1.03,1.22)  
 40–44 1208 104 8.6 0.64 (0.52,0.78) 0.60 (0.48,0.74)  
  Maternal BMI
 18.5–24.9 27,011 3890 14.4 Ref Ref < 0.001
 25.0–29.9 13,698 1818 13.3 0.91 (0.86,0.97) 0.98 (0.92,1.04)  
 30–34.9 5379 556 10.3 0.69 (0.62,0.75) 0.77 (0.70,0.85)  
  Parity
 0 17,206 2393 13.9 Ref Ref  
 1 18,914 2835 15.0 1.09 (1.03,1.16) 1.01 (0.95,1.08)  
 2 6691 798 11.9 0.84 (0.77,0.91) 0.86 (0.79,0.94)  
 3+ 3277 238 7.3 0.48 (0.42,0.56) 0.56 (0.47,0.66)  
  Ethnicity
 White 37,581 5793 15.4 Ref Ref < 0.001
 Black 2339 139 5.9 0.35 (0.29,0.41) 0.42 (0.35, 0.50)  
 Asian 4506 189 4.2 0.24 (0.21,0.28) 0.26 (0.23,0.30)  
 Other 143 143 8.6 0.52 (0.43,0.61) 0.56 (0.47,0.66)  
  Socioeconomic status
 Least deprived = 1 9450 1787 18.9 Ref Ref < 0.001
 2 7278 1180 16.2 0.83 (0.77,0.90) 0.89 (0.82, 0.96)  
 3 10,120 1448 14.3 0.72 (0.66, 0.77) 0.81 (0.75, 0.87)  
 4 10,049 1140 11.3 0.55 (0.51,0.59) 0.68 (0.62, 0.74)  
 Most deprived = 5 9191 709 7.7 0.36 (0.33,0.39) 0.47 (0.43, 0.52)  
  Birthweight
  < 2500 g 594 15 2.5 0.17 (0.10,0.28) 0.19 (0.11, 0.32) < 0.001
 2500-4000 g 40,204 5385 13.4 Ref Ref  
> 4000 g 5290 864 16.3 1.26 (1.17,1.37) 1.12 (1.03,1.21)  
  1. This table shows the rate of waterbirth in 46,088 women who had an unassisted vaginal birth in England in 2015/16 according to maternal and obstetric risk factors