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Table 3 Indications for routine amniocentesis. Every indication was counted once but many cases had more than one indication.

From: The application of late amniocentesis: a retrospective study in a tertiary fetal medicine center in China

Indication Number Percentage
(%)
Pathogenic
Results
Diagnostic
Yield (%)
VUS
Fetal abnormalities 979 45.0 125 12.8 35
Increased NT 308 14.1 43 14.0 8
Cardiovascular malformations 148 6.8 19 12.8 8
Central nervous system malformations 134 6.2 11 8.2 3
Multiple malformations 96 4.4 32 33.3 3
Urogenital malformations 81 3.7 5 6.2 5
Facial malformations 66 3.0 4 6.1 3
Skeletal malformations 47 2.2 2 4.3 0
Digestive malformations 21 1.0 1 4.8 0
FGR 20 0.9 1 5.0 0
Fetal tumor 19 0.9 4 21.1 1
Chest malformations 16 0.7 2 12.5 0
Polyhydramnios 8 0.4 1 12.5 0
Oligohydramnios 6 0.3 0 0 0
Ascites 5 0.2 0 0 0
Placental anomalies 4 0.2 0 0 4
Suspected prenatal screening results 612 28.1 177 28.9 26
Abnormal NIPT result 436 20.0 167 38.3 19
Positive second trimester DS screening result 176 8.1 10 5.7 7
Abnormal diagnostic test results 36 1.7 9 25 2
Abnormal CMA result 21 1.0 6 28.6 1
Abnormal karyotyping result 15 0.7 3 20.0 1
Others 549 25.2 23 4.2 26
Abnormal tribunal history 188 8.6 8 4.3 8
Advanced maternal age 163 7.5 8 4.9 8
Family history of genetic disease 102 4.7 3 2.9 6
Patient’s request 96 4.4 4 4.2 4
Total 2177 100 334 15.3 89
  1. Abbreviations: FGR Fetal growth restriction, defined as an estimated weight less than the 10th percentile [13]; Polyhydramnios defined as an amniotic fluid index (AFI) > 24 cm or the maximum pool depth (MPD) is > 8 cm; Oligohydramnios defined as a value of AFI < 5 cm or MPD < 2 cm; NT Nuchal translucency; Increased NT defined as NT measurement reaches 3.5 mm or more (>99th percentile) [14]; NIPT Noninvasive prenatal testing