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Table 2 Indications for late amniocentesis. Of note, every indication was counted once but many cases had more than one indication.

From: The application of late amniocentesis: a retrospective study in a tertiary fetal medicine center in China

Indication Number Percentage
(%)
Pathogenic
Results
Diagnostic
Yield (%)
VUS
Late detected abnormalities 1130 85.5 100 8.8 55
Central nervous system malformations 250 18.9 15 6.0 14
Cardiovascular malformations 177 13.5 23 13.0 7
Urogenital malformations 170 13.0 11 6.5 12
Multiple malformations 101 7.7 24 23.8 4
Facial malformations 70 5.3 5 7.1 2
Skeletal malformations 68 5.2 4 5.9 3
Polyhydramnios 56 4.3 3 5.4 4
Digestive malformations 55 4.2 0 0 0
SGA 52 4.0 3 5.8 5
FGR 48 3.7 5 10.4 1
Increased NT 25 1.9 5 20.0 1
Fetal tumor 21 1.6 1 4.8 0
Thoracic abnormalities 15 1.1 1 6.7 0
Ascites 10 0.8 0 0 1
Placental anomalies 7 0.5 0 0 0
Oligohydramnios 5 0.4 0 0 1
Suspected prenatal screening results 115 8.7 32 27.8 6
Abnormal NIPT result 84 6.4 30 35.7 5
Positive second trimester DS screening result 31 2.3 2 6.5 1
Abnormal diagnostic test results 10 0.8 7 70 0
Abnormal CMA result 5 0.4 4 80 0
Abnormal karyotyping result 4 0.3 3 75 0
Abnormal FISH result 1 0.1 0 0 0
Others 66 5.0 2 3.0 1
Patient’s request 25 1.9 0 0 1
Advanced maternal age 25 1.9 2 8 0
Abnormal tribunal history 9 0.7 0 0 0
Family history of genetic disease 7 0.5 0 0 0
Total 1321 100 141 10.7 62
  1. Abbreviations: FGR Fetal growth restriction, defined as an estimated weight less than the 10th percentile [13]; SGA Small for gestational age, defined as an estimated weight less than normal fetuses but fail to meet diagnostic requirement for FGR; Polyhydramnios defined as an amniotic fluid index (AFI) > 24 cm or the maximum pool depth (MPD) is > 8 cm; Oligohydramnios defined as a value of AFI < 5 cm or MPD < 2 cm; NT Nuchal translucency; Increased NT defined as NT measurement reaches 3.5 mm or more (>99th percentile) [14]; NIPT Noninvasive prenatal testing