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Table 1 Mothers in the Sydney and South West Sydney Local Health Districts (N = 9646)

From: Psychosocial stratification of antenatal indicators to guide population-based programs in perinatal depression

  Group La
n (%)
Group Lsb
n (%)
Group Mc
n (%)
Group Ms.d
n (%)
4573 (47%) 353 (4%) 4622 (48%) 98 (1%)
Demographic Characteristics
 Age at 1st antenatal visit, mean (sd) 29.93 (5.66) 28.36 (6.16) 31.12 (4.97) 32.43 (5.90)
  20–39 years old 4221 (92.3%) 319 (90.37%) 4372 (94.59%) 86 (87.76%)
  ≥ 40 years old 225 (4.92%) 14 (3.97%) 230 (4.98%) 9 (9.18%)
   < 20 years old 127 (2.78%) 20 (5.67%) 20 (0.43%) 3 (3.06%)
 Pre-pregnancy BMI in kg/m2, mean (sd) 25.75 (6.13) 25.61 (6.40) 23.71 (4.83) 24.80 (5.37)
  Underweight 186 (4.19%) 37 (10.88%) 350 (7/76%) 7 (7.29%)
  Normal weight () 2260 (50.86%) 145 (42.65%) 2723 (60.36%) 52 (54.17%)
  Overweight 1083 (24.37%) 80 (23.53%) 969 (21.48%) 23 (23.96%)
  Obese 915 (20.59%) 78 (22.94%) 469 (10.40%) 14 (14.58%)
 Born overseas or ESL
  No 4407 (96.37%) 350 (99.15%) 0 (0.00%) 5 (5.10%)
  Yes 166 (3.63%) 3 (0.85%) 4622 (100.00%) 93 (94.90%)
 Speaking English at home
  Yes 4486 (98.10%) 353 (100%) 2357 (51.00%) 60 (61.22%)
  No 87 (1.90%) 0 (0%) 2265 (49.00%) 38 (38/78%)
 Indigenous Status
  No 4426 (96.85%) 286 (81.48%) 4615 (99.94%) 97 (98.98%)
  Yes 144 (3.15%) 65 (18.52%) 3 (0.06%) 1 (2.21%)
 Socio-Economic Index for Areas
  Low 830 (18.25%) 114 (32.48%) 1765(40.33%) 55 (56.70%)
  Medium 3420 (75.21%) 230 (65.53%) 2469 (56.42%) 37 (38.14%)
  High 297 (6.53%) 7 (1.99%) 142 (3.24%) 5 (5.15%)
Family Factors
 Has a partner
  No 191 (4.21%) 106 (30.37%) 111 (2.43%) 26 (26.80%)
  Yes 4345 (95.79%) 243 (69.63%) 4459 (97.57%) 71 (97.57%)
 Supportive Partner
  No 65 (1.42%) 98 (27.76%) 110 (2.38%) 42 (42.86%)
  Yes 4508 (98.58%) 255 (72.24%) 4512 (97.62%) 56 (57.14%)
 Known to Family-and-Community Services
  No 4573 (100.00%) 164 (46.46%) 4622 (100.00%) 62 (63.27%)
  Yes 0 (00.00%) 189 (53.54%) 0 (0.00%) 36 (36.73%)
 Known to Out-of-Home-Care Services
  No 3285 (97.42%) 196 (67.12%) 3465 (97.58%) 64 (84.21%)
  Yes 87 (2.58%) 96 (32.88%) 86 (2.42%) 12 (15.79%)
Maternal Factors
 Thoughts of self-harm
  No 4168 (98.96%) 290 (92.36%) 4192 (98.94%) 73 (85.88%)
  Yes 44 (1.04%) 24 (7.64%) 45 (1.06%) 12 (14.12%)
 Gestational age at 1st antenatal visit, mean (sd) 12.57 (7.37) 14.46 (8.36) 12.49 (7.54) 15.55 (8.70)
  <20 weeks 3749 (83.20%) 255 (74.13%) 3760 (82.47%) 62 (63.27%)
  ≥20 weeks 757 (16.80%) 89 (25.87%) 799 (17.53%) 36 (36.73%)
Substance Use
 Smoking status
  No 4011 (87.71%) 104 (29.46%) 4589 (99.29%) 84 (85.71%)
  Yes 562 (12.29%) 249 (70.54%) 33 (0.71%) 14 (14.29%)
 Alcohol use
  No 4407 (98.98%) 325 (92.59%) 4533 (99.32%) 93 (98.94%)
  Yes 91 (2.02%) 26 (7.41%) 31 (0.68%) 1(1.06%)
Family Violence
 History of Child Abuse
  No 4145 (90.64%) 166 (47.03%) 4585 (99.20%) 63 (64.29%)
  Yes 428 (9.36%) 187 (52.97%) 37 (0.80%) 35 (35.71%)
 Intimate Partner Physical Violence
  No 4547 (99.56%) 293 (83.00%) 4567 (99.22%) 74 (75.51%)
  Yes 20 (0.44%) 60 (17.00%) 36 (0.78%) 24 (24.49%)
 Intimate Partner Psychological Violence
  No 4573 (100.00%) 297 (84.14%) 4608 (99.70%) 52 (53.06%)
  Yes 0 (0.00%) 56 (15.86%) 14 (0.30%) 46 (46.94%)
Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scales (EPDS)
 Antenatal EPDS, median (IQR) 3 (5) 7 (7) 5 (6) 11 (10.5)
  EPDS < 9 3762 (86.66%) 198 (60.37%) 3378 (78.41%) 33 (37.93%)
  EPDS ≥ 9 673 (13.34%) 130 (39.63%) 930 (21.59%) 54 (62.07%)
 Postnatal EPDS, median (IQR) 3 (4) 3 (5) 3 (5) 6 (7)
  EPDS < 9 3139 (90.23%) 205 (87.23%) 2880 (86.41%) 44 (47.69%)
  EPDS ≥ 9 340 (9.77%) 30 (12.77%) 453 (13.59%) 21 (32.31%)
  1. aSocially supported ‘local’ women who speak English as their primary language (Group L)
  2. bSocially supported ‘migrant’ women who speak a language other than English as their primary language (Group M)
  3. cSocially stressed ‘local’ women who speak English as their primary language (Group Ls)
  4. dSocially stressed ‘migrant’ women who speak a language other than English as their primary language (Group Ms.)