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Table 1 Maternal Descriptive, Pregnancy and Delivery Outcomes by Intervention Group and Exercise Adherence

From: The influence of exercise during pregnancy on racial/ethnic health disparities and birth outcomes

Characteristics Intention-to-Treat Per Protocol (≥ 80% adherence)
Aerobic
(n = 58)
Control
(n = 67)
p-value Aerobic
(n = 30)
Control
(n = 67)
p-value
Demographics
 Age (yr.)a 30.7 (4.0) 29.4 (4.3) 0.11 31.7 (3.2) 29.4 (4.3) 0.01
Race/Ethnicity
 NHB (n)c 17.2% [10] 29.9% [20] 0.10 13.3% [4] 29.9% [20] 0.13
Education Levelc, d
 Post-Secondary 98.0% (49) 80.4% (45) 0.005 96.3% [26] 80.4% (45) 0.09
 Pre-Pregnancy BMIa 24.7 (4.8) 27.0 (5.8) 0.02 23.4 (3.5) 27.0 (5.8) 0.0003
Pregnancy
 Gravidab 1.5 (1.0, 5.0) 1.0 (1.0, 6.0) 0.81 1.0 (1.0, 4.0) 1.0 (1.0, 6.0) 0.69
 GDM (n)c 5.3% [3] 7.6% [5] 0.72 6.7% [2] 7.6% [5] 1.00
 Gestational Weight Gain (lb) 30.6 (12.5) 28.9 (13.1) 0.66 31.1 (12.4) 28.9 (13.1) 0.48
Delivery
 Cesarean (%)c 21.1% [12] 23.8% [16] 0.64 20.0% [6] 23.8% [16] 0.79
  1. Note: Means (SD), medians (range) and proportions are reported and aStudent’s t-test, bWilcoxon Rank Sum tests and cFisher’s Exact tests were performed, respectively. NHB Non-Hispanic black; BMI body mass index; GDM gestational diabetes mellitus. Gestational weight gain was calculated by difference in self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and delivery weight, collected via medical records. dNineteen participants had missing data for level of education